The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response plays a key role in host recovery from influenza virus infection and in subsequent immunity. Compared to natural infection with influenza virus, however, intranasal vaccination with adjuvant-combined inactivated vaccine elicits only moderate CTL responses. Here we demonstrate that 5 days of consecutive, intranasal vaccination with a combination of inactivated influenza vaccine and poly(I:C) elicits a strong CTL response in the lung. Antigen-captured respiratory DCs did efficiently migrate from the lung to the mediastinal lymph node (mLN) after the 5 day series of inoculations with vaccine and poly(I:C). Importantly, formalin-inactivated whole virus vaccine and poly(I:C) adjuvant have synergic effects on consecutive vaccinations to elicit a strong CTL response in the lung. Although the CTL response was less effective against heterologous influenza virus, we show for the first time that intranasal administration of inactivated influenza virus vaccine and poly(I:C) for 5 consecutive days can elicit high levels of influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cells in the lung.
- Influenza virus
- Intranasal vaccine
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases