Inequalities in attendance in organized early learning programmes in developing societies: Findings from household surveys

Yuko Nonoyama-Tarumi, Edilberto Loaiza, Patrice Engle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


While the importance of attending early learning programmes is increasingly evident, the provision of early learning programmes in developing countries has not grown in parallel. In this paper we examine how attendance in early learning programmes for children aged 3-6 years, the recommended period, differs within and across 52 developing countries. We use two household surveys, the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) and the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). We employ logistic regression equations to predict the probability of attending early learning programmes. First, the participation rate varies extensively by age within the age range examined. Second, children with mothers with secondary education or higher and from the upper end of household wealth distribution have higher probabilities of attending early learning programmes. The findings highlight the need for disaggregated data and policies targeting children from disadvantaged family backgrounds in promoting early learning programmes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)385-409
Number of pages25
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2009 May



  • Attendance rate
  • Early childhood development
  • Family background
  • Inequalities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education

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