Influence of Earth-directed Coronal Mass Ejections on the Sun's Shadow Observed by the Tibet-III Air Shower Array

M. Amenomori, X. J. Bi, D. Chen, T. L. Chen, W. Y. Chen, S. W. Cui, Danzengluobu, L. K. Ding, C. F. Feng, Zhaoyang Feng, Z. Y. Feng, Q. B. Gou, Y. Q. Guo, H. H. He, Z. T. He, K. Hibino, N. Hotta, Haibing Hu, H. B. Hu, J. HuangH. Y. Jia, L. Jiang, F. Kajino, K. Kasahara, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, K. Kawata, M. Kozai, Labaciren, G. M. Le, A. F. Li, H. J. Li, W. J. Li, C. Liu, J. S. Liu, M. Y. Liu, H. Lu, X. R. Meng, T. Miyazaki, K. Munakata, T. Nakajima, Y. Nakamura, H. Nanjo, M. Nishizawa, T. Niwa, M. Ohnishi, I. Ohta, Shunsuke Ozawa, X. L. Qian, X. B. Qu, T. Saito, T. Y. Saito, M. Sakata, T. K. Sako, J. Shao, M. Shibata, A. Shiomi, T. Shirai, H. Sugimoto, M. Takita, Y. H. Tan, N. Tateyama, Shoji Torii, H. Tsuchiya, S. Udo, H. Wang, H. R. Wu, L. Xue, Y. Yamamoto, K. Yamauchi, Z. Yang, A. F. Yuan, L. M. Zhai, H. M. Zhang, J. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Yi Zhang, Ying Zhang, Zhaxisangzhu, X. X. Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

We examine the possible influence of Earth-directed coronal mass ejections (ECMEs) on the Sun's shadow in the 3 TeV cosmic-ray intensity observed by the Tibet-III air shower (AS) array. We confirm a clear solar-cycle variation of the intensity deficit in the Sun's shadow during ten years between 2000 and 2009. This solar-cycle variation is overall reproduced by our Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the Sun's shadow based on the potential field model of the solar magnetic field averaged over each solar rotation period. We find, however, that the magnitude of the observed intensity deficit in the Sun's shadow is significantly less than that predicted by MC simulations, particularly during the period around solar maximum when a significant number of ECMEs is recorded. The χ 2 tests of the agreement between the observations and the MC simulations show that the difference is larger during the periods when the ECMEs occur, and the difference is reduced if the periods of ECMEs are excluded from the analysis. This suggests the first experimental evidence of the ECMEs affecting the Sun's shadow observed in the 3 TeV cosmic-ray intensity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume860
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jun 10

Fingerprint

Tibet
cosmic ray showers
coronal mass ejection
sun
air
solar cycles
solar cycle
cosmic ray
cosmic rays
simulation
solar rotation
solar magnetic field
potential field
potential fields
magnetic field

Keywords

  • cosmic rays
  • magnetic fields
  • Sun: activity
  • Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Amenomori, M., Bi, X. J., Chen, D., Chen, T. L., Chen, W. Y., Cui, S. W., ... Zhou, X. X. (2018). Influence of Earth-directed Coronal Mass Ejections on the Sun's Shadow Observed by the Tibet-III Air Shower Array. Astrophysical Journal, 860(1), [13]. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aac2e6

Influence of Earth-directed Coronal Mass Ejections on the Sun's Shadow Observed by the Tibet-III Air Shower Array. / Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, D.; Chen, T. L.; Chen, W. Y.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z. Y.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; He, Z. T.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Jia, H. Y.; Jiang, L.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Kozai, M.; Labaciren; Le, G. M.; Li, A. F.; Li, H. J.; Li, W. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J. S.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Meng, X. R.; Miyazaki, T.; Munakata, K.; Nakajima, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Niwa, T.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Qian, X. L.; Qu, X. B.; Saito, T.; Saito, T. Y.; Sakata, M.; Sako, T. K.; Shao, J.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, Shoji; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Wang, H.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamauchi, K.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, A. F.; Zhai, L. M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 860, No. 1, 13, 10.06.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Amenomori, M, Bi, XJ, Chen, D, Chen, TL, Chen, WY, Cui, SW, Danzengluobu, Ding, LK, Feng, CF, Feng, Z, Feng, ZY, Gou, QB, Guo, YQ, He, HH, He, ZT, Hibino, K, Hotta, N, Hu, H, Hu, HB, Huang, J, Jia, HY, Jiang, L, Kajino, F, Kasahara, K, Katayose, Y, Kato, C, Kawata, K, Kozai, M, Labaciren, Le, GM, Li, AF, Li, HJ, Li, WJ, Liu, C, Liu, JS, Liu, MY, Lu, H, Meng, XR, Miyazaki, T, Munakata, K, Nakajima, T, Nakamura, Y, Nanjo, H, Nishizawa, M, Niwa, T, Ohnishi, M, Ohta, I, Ozawa, S, Qian, XL, Qu, XB, Saito, T, Saito, TY, Sakata, M, Sako, TK, Shao, J, Shibata, M, Shiomi, A, Shirai, T, Sugimoto, H, Takita, M, Tan, YH, Tateyama, N, Torii, S, Tsuchiya, H, Udo, S, Wang, H, Wu, HR, Xue, L, Yamamoto, Y, Yamauchi, K, Yang, Z, Yuan, AF, Zhai, LM, Zhang, HM, Zhang, JL, Zhang, XY, Zhang, Y, Zhang, Y, Zhang, Y, Zhaxisangzhu & Zhou, XX 2018, 'Influence of Earth-directed Coronal Mass Ejections on the Sun's Shadow Observed by the Tibet-III Air Shower Array', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 860, no. 1, 13. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aac2e6
Amenomori, M. ; Bi, X. J. ; Chen, D. ; Chen, T. L. ; Chen, W. Y. ; Cui, S. W. ; Danzengluobu ; Ding, L. K. ; Feng, C. F. ; Feng, Zhaoyang ; Feng, Z. Y. ; Gou, Q. B. ; Guo, Y. Q. ; He, H. H. ; He, Z. T. ; Hibino, K. ; Hotta, N. ; Hu, Haibing ; Hu, H. B. ; Huang, J. ; Jia, H. Y. ; Jiang, L. ; Kajino, F. ; Kasahara, K. ; Katayose, Y. ; Kato, C. ; Kawata, K. ; Kozai, M. ; Labaciren ; Le, G. M. ; Li, A. F. ; Li, H. J. ; Li, W. J. ; Liu, C. ; Liu, J. S. ; Liu, M. Y. ; Lu, H. ; Meng, X. R. ; Miyazaki, T. ; Munakata, K. ; Nakajima, T. ; Nakamura, Y. ; Nanjo, H. ; Nishizawa, M. ; Niwa, T. ; Ohnishi, M. ; Ohta, I. ; Ozawa, Shunsuke ; Qian, X. L. ; Qu, X. B. ; Saito, T. ; Saito, T. Y. ; Sakata, M. ; Sako, T. K. ; Shao, J. ; Shibata, M. ; Shiomi, A. ; Shirai, T. ; Sugimoto, H. ; Takita, M. ; Tan, Y. H. ; Tateyama, N. ; Torii, Shoji ; Tsuchiya, H. ; Udo, S. ; Wang, H. ; Wu, H. R. ; Xue, L. ; Yamamoto, Y. ; Yamauchi, K. ; Yang, Z. ; Yuan, A. F. ; Zhai, L. M. ; Zhang, H. M. ; Zhang, J. L. ; Zhang, X. Y. ; Zhang, Y. ; Zhang, Yi ; Zhang, Ying ; Zhaxisangzhu ; Zhou, X. X. / Influence of Earth-directed Coronal Mass Ejections on the Sun's Shadow Observed by the Tibet-III Air Shower Array. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2018 ; Vol. 860, No. 1.
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abstract = "We examine the possible influence of Earth-directed coronal mass ejections (ECMEs) on the Sun's shadow in the 3 TeV cosmic-ray intensity observed by the Tibet-III air shower (AS) array. We confirm a clear solar-cycle variation of the intensity deficit in the Sun's shadow during ten years between 2000 and 2009. This solar-cycle variation is overall reproduced by our Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the Sun's shadow based on the potential field model of the solar magnetic field averaged over each solar rotation period. We find, however, that the magnitude of the observed intensity deficit in the Sun's shadow is significantly less than that predicted by MC simulations, particularly during the period around solar maximum when a significant number of ECMEs is recorded. The χ 2 tests of the agreement between the observations and the MC simulations show that the difference is larger during the periods when the ECMEs occur, and the difference is reduced if the periods of ECMEs are excluded from the analysis. This suggests the first experimental evidence of the ECMEs affecting the Sun's shadow observed in the 3 TeV cosmic-ray intensity.",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Influence of Earth-directed Coronal Mass Ejections on the Sun's Shadow Observed by the Tibet-III Air Shower Array

AU - Amenomori, M.

AU - Bi, X. J.

AU - Chen, D.

AU - Chen, T. L.

AU - Chen, W. Y.

AU - Cui, S. W.

AU - Danzengluobu,

AU - Ding, L. K.

AU - Feng, C. F.

AU - Feng, Zhaoyang

AU - Feng, Z. Y.

AU - Gou, Q. B.

AU - Guo, Y. Q.

AU - He, H. H.

AU - He, Z. T.

AU - Hibino, K.

AU - Hotta, N.

AU - Hu, Haibing

AU - Hu, H. B.

AU - Huang, J.

AU - Jia, H. Y.

AU - Jiang, L.

AU - Kajino, F.

AU - Kasahara, K.

AU - Katayose, Y.

AU - Kato, C.

AU - Kawata, K.

AU - Kozai, M.

AU - Labaciren,

AU - Le, G. M.

AU - Li, A. F.

AU - Li, H. J.

AU - Li, W. J.

AU - Liu, C.

AU - Liu, J. S.

AU - Liu, M. Y.

AU - Lu, H.

AU - Meng, X. R.

AU - Miyazaki, T.

AU - Munakata, K.

AU - Nakajima, T.

AU - Nakamura, Y.

AU - Nanjo, H.

AU - Nishizawa, M.

AU - Niwa, T.

AU - Ohnishi, M.

AU - Ohta, I.

AU - Ozawa, Shunsuke

AU - Qian, X. L.

AU - Qu, X. B.

AU - Saito, T.

AU - Saito, T. Y.

AU - Sakata, M.

AU - Sako, T. K.

AU - Shao, J.

AU - Shibata, M.

AU - Shiomi, A.

AU - Shirai, T.

AU - Sugimoto, H.

AU - Takita, M.

AU - Tan, Y. H.

AU - Tateyama, N.

AU - Torii, Shoji

AU - Tsuchiya, H.

AU - Udo, S.

AU - Wang, H.

AU - Wu, H. R.

AU - Xue, L.

AU - Yamamoto, Y.

AU - Yamauchi, K.

AU - Yang, Z.

AU - Yuan, A. F.

AU - Zhai, L. M.

AU - Zhang, H. M.

AU - Zhang, J. L.

AU - Zhang, X. Y.

AU - Zhang, Y.

AU - Zhang, Yi

AU - Zhang, Ying

AU - Zhaxisangzhu,

AU - Zhou, X. X.

PY - 2018/6/10

Y1 - 2018/6/10

N2 - We examine the possible influence of Earth-directed coronal mass ejections (ECMEs) on the Sun's shadow in the 3 TeV cosmic-ray intensity observed by the Tibet-III air shower (AS) array. We confirm a clear solar-cycle variation of the intensity deficit in the Sun's shadow during ten years between 2000 and 2009. This solar-cycle variation is overall reproduced by our Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the Sun's shadow based on the potential field model of the solar magnetic field averaged over each solar rotation period. We find, however, that the magnitude of the observed intensity deficit in the Sun's shadow is significantly less than that predicted by MC simulations, particularly during the period around solar maximum when a significant number of ECMEs is recorded. The χ 2 tests of the agreement between the observations and the MC simulations show that the difference is larger during the periods when the ECMEs occur, and the difference is reduced if the periods of ECMEs are excluded from the analysis. This suggests the first experimental evidence of the ECMEs affecting the Sun's shadow observed in the 3 TeV cosmic-ray intensity.

AB - We examine the possible influence of Earth-directed coronal mass ejections (ECMEs) on the Sun's shadow in the 3 TeV cosmic-ray intensity observed by the Tibet-III air shower (AS) array. We confirm a clear solar-cycle variation of the intensity deficit in the Sun's shadow during ten years between 2000 and 2009. This solar-cycle variation is overall reproduced by our Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the Sun's shadow based on the potential field model of the solar magnetic field averaged over each solar rotation period. We find, however, that the magnitude of the observed intensity deficit in the Sun's shadow is significantly less than that predicted by MC simulations, particularly during the period around solar maximum when a significant number of ECMEs is recorded. The χ 2 tests of the agreement between the observations and the MC simulations show that the difference is larger during the periods when the ECMEs occur, and the difference is reduced if the periods of ECMEs are excluded from the analysis. This suggests the first experimental evidence of the ECMEs affecting the Sun's shadow observed in the 3 TeV cosmic-ray intensity.

KW - cosmic rays

KW - magnetic fields

KW - Sun: activity

KW - Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs)

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U2 - 10.3847/1538-4357/aac2e6

DO - 10.3847/1538-4357/aac2e6

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VL - 860

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

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