Insufficient visual information leads to spontaneous bipedal walking in Japanese monkeys

Yuko Manaka, Yoichi Sugita

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)


Japanese monkeys walked spontaneously on their hind limbs, when their vision was impaired either by narrowing the visual field or by reducing the incoming light. These variables were manipulated via goggles with translucent pipes and neutral density filters. The bipedal locomotion was observed more frequently as the impairment of the incoming visual information increased. It is very likely that facultative bipeds walk on their hind limbs when they feel the need to "free" their forelimbs to grope their way.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)104-106
Number of pages3
JournalBehavioural Processes
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Jan
Externally publishedYes



  • Bipedal locomotion
  • Impaired vision
  • Monkey
  • Multimodal integration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

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