Interdependencies of structural constraints, attachment and behavioural intentions of sport spectators

Rei Yamashita*, Kirstin Hallmann

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Research question: Leisure behaviour has focused long time on positive outcomes for active and passive sport participants and it has been advocated that constraints play an important role in decision-making in leisure activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interdependencies of spectator constraints, attachment to a sport team, and behavioural intentions. Research methods: Using a paper-pencil questionnaire, data were collected from spectators attending a J. League Division 2 matches in Japan using a convenience sampling approach. Five-hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed and total sample size used was n = 428. Results and Findings: Structural equation modelling has found a negative and significant direct association of structural constraints on attachment which in turn has a positive and significant direct association with behavioural intentions. There is negative and significant indirect effect of structural constraints on intentions (mediated via attachment) whereas there is no significant direct effect of constraints on intentions. Thus, attachment serves as negotiator between constraints and intentions. Multi-group analysis has revealed significant gender differences. Implications: Practitioners should identify the actual attachment of their spectators as attachment functions as mediator between perceived constraints and behavioural intentions. Since not all structural constraints can be remedied by management (e.g. weather), knowing the level of attachment is important to reduce constraints.

Original languageEnglish
JournalManaging Sport and Leisure
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2020


  • Negotiation
  • leisure behaviour
  • multi-group analysis
  • team attachment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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