Interference of an array of independent Bose-Einstein condensates, whose experiment has been performed recently, is theoretically studied in detail. Even if the number of the atoms in each gas is kept finite and the phases of the gases are not well-defined, interference fringes are observed on each snapshot. The statistics of the snapshot interference patterns, i.e. the average fringe amplitudes and their fluctuations (covariance), are computed analytically, and concise formulas for their asymptotic values for long time of flight are derived. Processes contributing to these quantities are clarified and the relationship with the description on the basis of the symmetry-breaking scenario is revealed.
- Bose-Einstein condensation
- Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect
- spontaneous symmetry breaking
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)