Masae Shiyomi, Hiroshi Koizumi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Citation (Scopus)


The development of agriculture in advanced countries from the 1950s to the 1970s occurred largely because of enormous increases in the use of fossil fuel energy. Specifically, it was supported by the increased use of fertilizers and agrochemicals, which are produced with fossil fuels, agromachinery that burns large amounts of fuel, and the breeding of new varieties of crops that are responsive to and compatible with such chemical inputs and cultural practices (Pimentel et al., 1973). Researchers, too, have promoted this agricultural system by focusing on research that improves crop yield by the direct utilization of these fertilizers and agrochemical inputs. Indeed, this research program has been very efficient and has increased both crop and livestock production and increasingly accelerated the consumption of fertilizers and agrochemicals. The use of intra-and interspecific interactions and interactions between organisms and the environment, such as climatic factors and soils, are given little consideration in the current agricultural system.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationStructure and Function in Agroecosystem Design and Management
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9781420041460
ISBN (Print)9780849309045
Publication statusPublished - 2001 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Environmental Science(all)


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