Introduction of human Flt3-L and GM-CSF into humanized mice enhances the reconstitution and maturation of myeloid dendritic cells and the development of Foxp3+CD4+ T cells

Ryutaro Iwabuchi, Shota Ikeno, Mie Kobayashi-Ishihara, Haruko Takeyama, Manabu Ato, Yasuko Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Kazutaka Terahara

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    1 Citation (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Two cytokines, fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3-L) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are considered to be the essential regulators of dendritic cell (DC) development in vivo. However, the combined effect of Flt3-L and GM-CSF on human DCs has not been evaluated in vivo. In this study, we, therefore, aimed at evaluating this using a humanized mouse model. Humanized non-obese diabetic/SCID/Jak3null (hNOJ) mice were constructed by transplanting hematopoietic stem cells from human umbilical cord blood into newborn NOJ mice, and in vivo transfection (IVT) was performed by hydrodynamic injection-mediated gene delivery using plasmids encoding human Flt3-L and GM-CSF. Following IVT, Flt3-L and GM-CSF were successfully induced in hNOJ mice. At 10 days post-IVT, we found, in the spleen, that treatment with both Flt3-L and GM-CSF enhanced the reconstitution of two myeloid DC subsets, CD14-CD1c+ conventional DCs (cDCs) and CD14-CD141+ cDCs, in addition to CD14+ monocyte-like cells expressing CD1c and/or CD141. GM-CSF alone had less effect on the reconstitution of these myeloid cell populations. By contrast, none of the cytokine treatments enhanced CD123+ plasmacytoid DC (pDC) reconstitution. Regardless of the reconstitution levels, three cell populations (CD1c+ myeloid cells, CD141+ myeloid cells, and pDCs) could be matured by treatment with cytokines, in terms of upregulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, and CD184/CXCR4 and downregulation of CD195/CCR5. In particular, GM-CSF contributed to upregulation of CD80 in all these cell populations. Interestingly, we further observed that Foxp3+ cells within splenic CD4+ T cells were significantly increased in the presence of GM-CSF. Foxp3+ T cells could be subdivided into two subpopulations, CD45RA-Foxp3hi and CD45RA-Foxp3lo T cells. Whereas CD45RA-Foxp3hi T cells were increased only after treatment with GM-CSF alone, CD45RA-Foxp3lo T cells were increased only after treatment with both Flt3-L and GM-CSF. Treatment with Flt3-L alone had no effect on the number of Foxp3+ T cells. The correlation analysis demonstrated that the development of these Foxp3+ subpopulations was associated with the maturation status of DC(-like) cells. Taken together, this study provides a platform for studying the in vivo effect of Flt3-L and GM-CSF on human DCs and regulatory T cells.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number1042
    JournalFrontiers in Immunology
    Volume9
    Issue numberMAY
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2018 May 28

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    Myeloid Cells
    Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
    Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
    Dendritic Cells
    Ligands
    T-Lymphocytes
    Transfection
    SCID Mice
    Cytokines
    Up-Regulation
    Therapeutics
    Population
    Regulatory T-Lymphocytes
    Hydrodynamics
    Hematopoietic Stem Cells
    Fetal Blood
    Monocytes
    Plasmids
    Down-Regulation
    Spleen

    Keywords

    • Cytokines
    • Dendritic cells
    • Flt3-L
    • Foxp3
    • GM-CSF
    • Humanized mice
    • T cells

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Immunology and Allergy
    • Immunology

    Cite this

    Introduction of human Flt3-L and GM-CSF into humanized mice enhances the reconstitution and maturation of myeloid dendritic cells and the development of Foxp3+CD4+ T cells. / Iwabuchi, Ryutaro; Ikeno, Shota; Kobayashi-Ishihara, Mie; Takeyama, Haruko; Ato, Manabu; Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko; Terahara, Kazutaka.

    In: Frontiers in Immunology, Vol. 9, No. MAY, 1042, 28.05.2018.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Iwabuchi, Ryutaro ; Ikeno, Shota ; Kobayashi-Ishihara, Mie ; Takeyama, Haruko ; Ato, Manabu ; Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko ; Terahara, Kazutaka. / Introduction of human Flt3-L and GM-CSF into humanized mice enhances the reconstitution and maturation of myeloid dendritic cells and the development of Foxp3+CD4+ T cells. In: Frontiers in Immunology. 2018 ; Vol. 9, No. MAY.
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    abstract = "Two cytokines, fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3-L) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are considered to be the essential regulators of dendritic cell (DC) development in vivo. However, the combined effect of Flt3-L and GM-CSF on human DCs has not been evaluated in vivo. In this study, we, therefore, aimed at evaluating this using a humanized mouse model. Humanized non-obese diabetic/SCID/Jak3null (hNOJ) mice were constructed by transplanting hematopoietic stem cells from human umbilical cord blood into newborn NOJ mice, and in vivo transfection (IVT) was performed by hydrodynamic injection-mediated gene delivery using plasmids encoding human Flt3-L and GM-CSF. Following IVT, Flt3-L and GM-CSF were successfully induced in hNOJ mice. At 10 days post-IVT, we found, in the spleen, that treatment with both Flt3-L and GM-CSF enhanced the reconstitution of two myeloid DC subsets, CD14-CD1c+ conventional DCs (cDCs) and CD14-CD141+ cDCs, in addition to CD14+ monocyte-like cells expressing CD1c and/or CD141. GM-CSF alone had less effect on the reconstitution of these myeloid cell populations. By contrast, none of the cytokine treatments enhanced CD123+ plasmacytoid DC (pDC) reconstitution. Regardless of the reconstitution levels, three cell populations (CD1c+ myeloid cells, CD141+ myeloid cells, and pDCs) could be matured by treatment with cytokines, in terms of upregulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, and CD184/CXCR4 and downregulation of CD195/CCR5. In particular, GM-CSF contributed to upregulation of CD80 in all these cell populations. Interestingly, we further observed that Foxp3+ cells within splenic CD4+ T cells were significantly increased in the presence of GM-CSF. Foxp3+ T cells could be subdivided into two subpopulations, CD45RA-Foxp3hi and CD45RA-Foxp3lo T cells. Whereas CD45RA-Foxp3hi T cells were increased only after treatment with GM-CSF alone, CD45RA-Foxp3lo T cells were increased only after treatment with both Flt3-L and GM-CSF. Treatment with Flt3-L alone had no effect on the number of Foxp3+ T cells. The correlation analysis demonstrated that the development of these Foxp3+ subpopulations was associated with the maturation status of DC(-like) cells. Taken together, this study provides a platform for studying the in vivo effect of Flt3-L and GM-CSF on human DCs and regulatory T cells.",
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    AU - Iwabuchi, Ryutaro

    AU - Ikeno, Shota

    AU - Kobayashi-Ishihara, Mie

    AU - Takeyama, Haruko

    AU - Ato, Manabu

    AU - Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko

    AU - Terahara, Kazutaka

    PY - 2018/5/28

    Y1 - 2018/5/28

    N2 - Two cytokines, fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3-L) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are considered to be the essential regulators of dendritic cell (DC) development in vivo. However, the combined effect of Flt3-L and GM-CSF on human DCs has not been evaluated in vivo. In this study, we, therefore, aimed at evaluating this using a humanized mouse model. Humanized non-obese diabetic/SCID/Jak3null (hNOJ) mice were constructed by transplanting hematopoietic stem cells from human umbilical cord blood into newborn NOJ mice, and in vivo transfection (IVT) was performed by hydrodynamic injection-mediated gene delivery using plasmids encoding human Flt3-L and GM-CSF. Following IVT, Flt3-L and GM-CSF were successfully induced in hNOJ mice. At 10 days post-IVT, we found, in the spleen, that treatment with both Flt3-L and GM-CSF enhanced the reconstitution of two myeloid DC subsets, CD14-CD1c+ conventional DCs (cDCs) and CD14-CD141+ cDCs, in addition to CD14+ monocyte-like cells expressing CD1c and/or CD141. GM-CSF alone had less effect on the reconstitution of these myeloid cell populations. By contrast, none of the cytokine treatments enhanced CD123+ plasmacytoid DC (pDC) reconstitution. Regardless of the reconstitution levels, three cell populations (CD1c+ myeloid cells, CD141+ myeloid cells, and pDCs) could be matured by treatment with cytokines, in terms of upregulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, and CD184/CXCR4 and downregulation of CD195/CCR5. In particular, GM-CSF contributed to upregulation of CD80 in all these cell populations. Interestingly, we further observed that Foxp3+ cells within splenic CD4+ T cells were significantly increased in the presence of GM-CSF. Foxp3+ T cells could be subdivided into two subpopulations, CD45RA-Foxp3hi and CD45RA-Foxp3lo T cells. Whereas CD45RA-Foxp3hi T cells were increased only after treatment with GM-CSF alone, CD45RA-Foxp3lo T cells were increased only after treatment with both Flt3-L and GM-CSF. Treatment with Flt3-L alone had no effect on the number of Foxp3+ T cells. The correlation analysis demonstrated that the development of these Foxp3+ subpopulations was associated with the maturation status of DC(-like) cells. Taken together, this study provides a platform for studying the in vivo effect of Flt3-L and GM-CSF on human DCs and regulatory T cells.

    AB - Two cytokines, fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3-L) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are considered to be the essential regulators of dendritic cell (DC) development in vivo. However, the combined effect of Flt3-L and GM-CSF on human DCs has not been evaluated in vivo. In this study, we, therefore, aimed at evaluating this using a humanized mouse model. Humanized non-obese diabetic/SCID/Jak3null (hNOJ) mice were constructed by transplanting hematopoietic stem cells from human umbilical cord blood into newborn NOJ mice, and in vivo transfection (IVT) was performed by hydrodynamic injection-mediated gene delivery using plasmids encoding human Flt3-L and GM-CSF. Following IVT, Flt3-L and GM-CSF were successfully induced in hNOJ mice. At 10 days post-IVT, we found, in the spleen, that treatment with both Flt3-L and GM-CSF enhanced the reconstitution of two myeloid DC subsets, CD14-CD1c+ conventional DCs (cDCs) and CD14-CD141+ cDCs, in addition to CD14+ monocyte-like cells expressing CD1c and/or CD141. GM-CSF alone had less effect on the reconstitution of these myeloid cell populations. By contrast, none of the cytokine treatments enhanced CD123+ plasmacytoid DC (pDC) reconstitution. Regardless of the reconstitution levels, three cell populations (CD1c+ myeloid cells, CD141+ myeloid cells, and pDCs) could be matured by treatment with cytokines, in terms of upregulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, and CD184/CXCR4 and downregulation of CD195/CCR5. In particular, GM-CSF contributed to upregulation of CD80 in all these cell populations. Interestingly, we further observed that Foxp3+ cells within splenic CD4+ T cells were significantly increased in the presence of GM-CSF. Foxp3+ T cells could be subdivided into two subpopulations, CD45RA-Foxp3hi and CD45RA-Foxp3lo T cells. Whereas CD45RA-Foxp3hi T cells were increased only after treatment with GM-CSF alone, CD45RA-Foxp3lo T cells were increased only after treatment with both Flt3-L and GM-CSF. Treatment with Flt3-L alone had no effect on the number of Foxp3+ T cells. The correlation analysis demonstrated that the development of these Foxp3+ subpopulations was associated with the maturation status of DC(-like) cells. Taken together, this study provides a platform for studying the in vivo effect of Flt3-L and GM-CSF on human DCs and regulatory T cells.

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    KW - Dendritic cells

    KW - Flt3-L

    KW - Foxp3

    KW - GM-CSF

    KW - Humanized mice

    KW - T cells

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