Is Fragmentation a Threat to the Success of the Internet of Things?

Mohab Aly, Foutse Khomh, Yann Gael Gueheneuc, Hironori Washizaki, Soumaya Yacout

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Internet of Things (IoT) aims to bring connectivity to almost every objects, i.e., things, found in the physical space. It extends connectivity to everyday things, however, such increase in the connectivity creates many prominent challenges. Context: Generally, IoT opens the door for new applications for machine-to-machine (M2M) and human-to-human communications. The current trend of collaborating, distributed teams through the Internet, mobile communications, and autonomous entities, e.g., robots, is the first phase of the IoT to develop and deliver diverse services and applications. However, such collaborations is threatened by the fragmentation that we witness in the industry nowadays as it brings difficulty to integrate the diverse technologies of the various objects found in IoT systems. Diverse technologies induce interoperability issues while designing and developing various services and applications, hence, limiting the possibility of reusing the data, more specifically, the software (including frameworks, firmware, APIs, user interfaces) as well as of facing issues, like security threats and bugs, when developing new services or applications. Different aspects of handling data collection ranging from discovering smart sensors for data collection, integrating and applying reasoning on them must be available to provide interoperability and flexibility to the diverse objects interacting in the system. However, such approaches are bound to be challenged in future IoT scenarios as they bring substantial performance impairments in settings with the very large number of collaborating devices and technologies. Objective: We raise the awareness of the community about the lack of interoperability among technologies developed for IoT and challenges that their integration poses. We also provide guidelines for researchers and practitioners interested in connecting IoT networks and devices to develop services and applications. Method: We apply the methods advocated by the Evidence-based Software Engineering paradigm (EBSE). This paradigm and its core tool, the Systematic Literature Review (SLR), were introduced to the sofware-engineering research community early 2004 to help researchers and industry systematically and objectively gather and aggregate evidences about different topics. In this paper, we conduct a SLR of both IoT interoperability issues and the state-of-practice of IoT technologies in the industry, highlighting the integration challenges related to the IoT that have significantly shifted the landscape of Internet-based collaborative services and applications nowadays. Results: Our SLR identifies a number of studies from journals, conferences, and workshops with the highest quality in the field. This SLR reports different trends, including frameworks and technologies, for the IoT for better comprehension of the paradigm and discusses the integration and interoperability challenges across the different layers of this technology while shedding light on the current IoT state-of-practice. It also discusses some future research directions for the community.

    Original languageEnglish
    JournalIEEE Internet of Things Journal
    DOIs
    Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2018 Aug 2

    Fingerprint

    Interoperability
    Internet of things
    Internet
    Industry
    Smart sensors
    Firmware
    Data handling
    Engineering research
    Communication
    Application programming interfaces (API)
    User interfaces
    Software engineering
    Robots

    Keywords

    • Biological system modeling
    • Data models
    • Internet of Things
    • Internet of Things
    • Interoperability
    • Interoperability
    • Machine-to-machine communications
    • Models
    • Protocols
    • Standards.
    • Technologies and Frameworks
    • Wireless sensor networks

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Signal Processing
    • Information Systems
    • Hardware and Architecture
    • Computer Science Applications
    • Computer Networks and Communications

    Cite this

    Is Fragmentation a Threat to the Success of the Internet of Things? / Aly, Mohab; Khomh, Foutse; Gueheneuc, Yann Gael; Washizaki, Hironori; Yacout, Soumaya.

    In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 02.08.2018.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Aly, Mohab ; Khomh, Foutse ; Gueheneuc, Yann Gael ; Washizaki, Hironori ; Yacout, Soumaya. / Is Fragmentation a Threat to the Success of the Internet of Things?. In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal. 2018.
    @article{5ba7e96c1eed42f69476f0443d589db7,
    title = "Is Fragmentation a Threat to the Success of the Internet of Things?",
    abstract = "Internet of Things (IoT) aims to bring connectivity to almost every objects, i.e., things, found in the physical space. It extends connectivity to everyday things, however, such increase in the connectivity creates many prominent challenges. Context: Generally, IoT opens the door for new applications for machine-to-machine (M2M) and human-to-human communications. The current trend of collaborating, distributed teams through the Internet, mobile communications, and autonomous entities, e.g., robots, is the first phase of the IoT to develop and deliver diverse services and applications. However, such collaborations is threatened by the fragmentation that we witness in the industry nowadays as it brings difficulty to integrate the diverse technologies of the various objects found in IoT systems. Diverse technologies induce interoperability issues while designing and developing various services and applications, hence, limiting the possibility of reusing the data, more specifically, the software (including frameworks, firmware, APIs, user interfaces) as well as of facing issues, like security threats and bugs, when developing new services or applications. Different aspects of handling data collection ranging from discovering smart sensors for data collection, integrating and applying reasoning on them must be available to provide interoperability and flexibility to the diverse objects interacting in the system. However, such approaches are bound to be challenged in future IoT scenarios as they bring substantial performance impairments in settings with the very large number of collaborating devices and technologies. Objective: We raise the awareness of the community about the lack of interoperability among technologies developed for IoT and challenges that their integration poses. We also provide guidelines for researchers and practitioners interested in connecting IoT networks and devices to develop services and applications. Method: We apply the methods advocated by the Evidence-based Software Engineering paradigm (EBSE). This paradigm and its core tool, the Systematic Literature Review (SLR), were introduced to the sofware-engineering research community early 2004 to help researchers and industry systematically and objectively gather and aggregate evidences about different topics. In this paper, we conduct a SLR of both IoT interoperability issues and the state-of-practice of IoT technologies in the industry, highlighting the integration challenges related to the IoT that have significantly shifted the landscape of Internet-based collaborative services and applications nowadays. Results: Our SLR identifies a number of studies from journals, conferences, and workshops with the highest quality in the field. This SLR reports different trends, including frameworks and technologies, for the IoT for better comprehension of the paradigm and discusses the integration and interoperability challenges across the different layers of this technology while shedding light on the current IoT state-of-practice. It also discusses some future research directions for the community.",
    keywords = "Biological system modeling, Data models, Internet of Things, Internet of Things, Interoperability, Interoperability, Machine-to-machine communications, Models, Protocols, Standards., Technologies and Frameworks, Wireless sensor networks",
    author = "Mohab Aly and Foutse Khomh and Gueheneuc, {Yann Gael} and Hironori Washizaki and Soumaya Yacout",
    year = "2018",
    month = "8",
    day = "2",
    doi = "10.1109/JIOT.2018.2863180",
    language = "English",
    journal = "IEEE Internet of Things Journal",
    issn = "2327-4662",
    publisher = "Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Is Fragmentation a Threat to the Success of the Internet of Things?

    AU - Aly, Mohab

    AU - Khomh, Foutse

    AU - Gueheneuc, Yann Gael

    AU - Washizaki, Hironori

    AU - Yacout, Soumaya

    PY - 2018/8/2

    Y1 - 2018/8/2

    N2 - Internet of Things (IoT) aims to bring connectivity to almost every objects, i.e., things, found in the physical space. It extends connectivity to everyday things, however, such increase in the connectivity creates many prominent challenges. Context: Generally, IoT opens the door for new applications for machine-to-machine (M2M) and human-to-human communications. The current trend of collaborating, distributed teams through the Internet, mobile communications, and autonomous entities, e.g., robots, is the first phase of the IoT to develop and deliver diverse services and applications. However, such collaborations is threatened by the fragmentation that we witness in the industry nowadays as it brings difficulty to integrate the diverse technologies of the various objects found in IoT systems. Diverse technologies induce interoperability issues while designing and developing various services and applications, hence, limiting the possibility of reusing the data, more specifically, the software (including frameworks, firmware, APIs, user interfaces) as well as of facing issues, like security threats and bugs, when developing new services or applications. Different aspects of handling data collection ranging from discovering smart sensors for data collection, integrating and applying reasoning on them must be available to provide interoperability and flexibility to the diverse objects interacting in the system. However, such approaches are bound to be challenged in future IoT scenarios as they bring substantial performance impairments in settings with the very large number of collaborating devices and technologies. Objective: We raise the awareness of the community about the lack of interoperability among technologies developed for IoT and challenges that their integration poses. We also provide guidelines for researchers and practitioners interested in connecting IoT networks and devices to develop services and applications. Method: We apply the methods advocated by the Evidence-based Software Engineering paradigm (EBSE). This paradigm and its core tool, the Systematic Literature Review (SLR), were introduced to the sofware-engineering research community early 2004 to help researchers and industry systematically and objectively gather and aggregate evidences about different topics. In this paper, we conduct a SLR of both IoT interoperability issues and the state-of-practice of IoT technologies in the industry, highlighting the integration challenges related to the IoT that have significantly shifted the landscape of Internet-based collaborative services and applications nowadays. Results: Our SLR identifies a number of studies from journals, conferences, and workshops with the highest quality in the field. This SLR reports different trends, including frameworks and technologies, for the IoT for better comprehension of the paradigm and discusses the integration and interoperability challenges across the different layers of this technology while shedding light on the current IoT state-of-practice. It also discusses some future research directions for the community.

    AB - Internet of Things (IoT) aims to bring connectivity to almost every objects, i.e., things, found in the physical space. It extends connectivity to everyday things, however, such increase in the connectivity creates many prominent challenges. Context: Generally, IoT opens the door for new applications for machine-to-machine (M2M) and human-to-human communications. The current trend of collaborating, distributed teams through the Internet, mobile communications, and autonomous entities, e.g., robots, is the first phase of the IoT to develop and deliver diverse services and applications. However, such collaborations is threatened by the fragmentation that we witness in the industry nowadays as it brings difficulty to integrate the diverse technologies of the various objects found in IoT systems. Diverse technologies induce interoperability issues while designing and developing various services and applications, hence, limiting the possibility of reusing the data, more specifically, the software (including frameworks, firmware, APIs, user interfaces) as well as of facing issues, like security threats and bugs, when developing new services or applications. Different aspects of handling data collection ranging from discovering smart sensors for data collection, integrating and applying reasoning on them must be available to provide interoperability and flexibility to the diverse objects interacting in the system. However, such approaches are bound to be challenged in future IoT scenarios as they bring substantial performance impairments in settings with the very large number of collaborating devices and technologies. Objective: We raise the awareness of the community about the lack of interoperability among technologies developed for IoT and challenges that their integration poses. We also provide guidelines for researchers and practitioners interested in connecting IoT networks and devices to develop services and applications. Method: We apply the methods advocated by the Evidence-based Software Engineering paradigm (EBSE). This paradigm and its core tool, the Systematic Literature Review (SLR), were introduced to the sofware-engineering research community early 2004 to help researchers and industry systematically and objectively gather and aggregate evidences about different topics. In this paper, we conduct a SLR of both IoT interoperability issues and the state-of-practice of IoT technologies in the industry, highlighting the integration challenges related to the IoT that have significantly shifted the landscape of Internet-based collaborative services and applications nowadays. Results: Our SLR identifies a number of studies from journals, conferences, and workshops with the highest quality in the field. This SLR reports different trends, including frameworks and technologies, for the IoT for better comprehension of the paradigm and discusses the integration and interoperability challenges across the different layers of this technology while shedding light on the current IoT state-of-practice. It also discusses some future research directions for the community.

    KW - Biological system modeling

    KW - Data models

    KW - Internet of Things

    KW - Internet of Things

    KW - Interoperability

    KW - Interoperability

    KW - Machine-to-machine communications

    KW - Models

    KW - Protocols

    KW - Standards.

    KW - Technologies and Frameworks

    KW - Wireless sensor networks

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85051049569&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85051049569&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1109/JIOT.2018.2863180

    DO - 10.1109/JIOT.2018.2863180

    M3 - Article

    AN - SCOPUS:85051049569

    JO - IEEE Internet of Things Journal

    JF - IEEE Internet of Things Journal

    SN - 2327-4662

    ER -