Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In addition to the traditional concepts of joinder and authorized representation, Japan permits only injunction claims by consumer organizations against unfair business practice and contract terms, with strong restrictions on approval of such organizations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)280-285
Number of pages6
JournalAnnals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Mar
Externally publishedYes


  • Anti-monopoly Law
  • Consumer Contract Act
  • Group representative litigation
  • Injunction
  • Representative action

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Social Sciences(all)

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