Life history and demography of wild moor macaques (Macaca maurus): Summary of ten years of observations

Kyoko Okamoto*, Shuichi Matsumura, Kunio Watanabe

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


Data on the life history and demography of individual species are indispensable when we discuss social behavior from an evolutionary perspective, and when we attempt to make adequate conservation plans. This is the first report on the life history and demography of moor macaques in their natural habitat. Moor macaques (Macaca maurus) in the Karaenta Nature Reserve, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, have been observed since 1981. Individual identification of group members began in 1988. The size of the study group increased continuously, from 20 to 43, over this 10-year period of observation (1988-1998). The average population growth rate was 8.0%, and 45 births were confirmed during this period. They were categorized as moderately seasonal breeders. Mortality rate within one year after birth was 17.1%. Average inter-birth interval following surviving infants was 24.1 months, while that following early infant death was 15.0 months. As is the case in other species of macaques, males moved between groups while females stayed in their natal groups. Females seemed to exhibit their first perineal swelling at 4-6 years of age, and to have their first infant at 6-7 years. Males left their natal group at 7-9 years. Solitary males were seldom observed around the study group. The late dispersal of males from their natal groups and their infrequent movement between groups contrast with patterns in well-known macaque species such as Japanese macaques. Recently, differences in social characteristics among macaque species have attracted the attention of researchers. Our findings would be useful to further understanding of such social differences. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Primatology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2000 Oct 2
Externally publishedYes


  • Demography
  • Life history
  • Macaca maurus
  • Male natal dispersal
  • Moor macaques

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Animal Science and Zoology


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