Increasing the energy density of lithium-ion batteries is an important step towards flexible electricity supply, which can be achieved by developing large-capacity positive electrodes. Lithium-rich oxides have been a longstanding research target because of their large capacity involving extra oxygen-redox reactions. In this work, we report the synthesis, electrochemical properties, electronic structure, and structural evolution of O2-type lithium-rich layered oxide Li1.22-xRu0.78O2. A robust Ru-O layered framework without Ru migration allows for unveiling the solid-state electrochemistry of O2-type lithium-rich layered oxides with possibility of a large yet stable extra capacity for oxygen-redox reaction. Using a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption/emission spectroscopy, and in situ/ex situ X-ray diffraction, we clarified that O2-Li1.22-xRu0.78O2 delivers a large capacity of 200 mAh g-1 in association with Ru5+/Ru4+ and Ru4+/Ru3+ two-electron redox reactions under a solid-solution process, but with no contribution from the extra oxygen-redox reaction.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry