Low chirp modulation by electro-optic intensity modulator using microwave 180-degree hybrid directly formed on LiNbO<inf>3</inf> substrate

Akira Enokihara, Masashi Yamamoto, Tadashi Kawai, Tetsuya Kawanishi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


An electro-optic (EO) modulator integrated with the microwave planar circuit directly formed on a LiNbO<inf>3</inf> (LN) substrate for low frequency-chirp performance and compact configuration is introduced. Frequency chirp of EO intensity modulators was investigated and a dualelectrode Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator combined with a microwave ratrace (RR) circuit was considered for the low-chirp modulation. The RR circuit, which operates as a 180-degree hybrid, was designed on a z-cut LN substrate to create two modulation signals of the same amplitude in anti-phase with each other from a single input signal. Output ports of the RR were connected to the modulation electrodes on the substrate. The two signals of the equal amplitude drive two phase modulation parts of the modulator so that the symmetric interference are realized to obtain intensity modulation of low frequency-chirp. The modulator was designed and fabricated on a single LN substrate for around 10 GHz modulation frequencies and 1550 nm light wavelength. The chirp parameters were measured to be less than 0.2 in the frequency range between 8 and 12 GHz. By compensating imbalance of the light power splitting in the waveguide MZ interferometer the chirp could be reduced even more.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)777-782
Number of pages6
JournalIEICE Transactions on Electronics
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Aug 1
Externally publishedYes



  • Electro-optic modulator
  • Light-frequency chirp
  • Mach-Zehnder interferometer
  • Rat-race

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

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