Low-energy transfers to the Moon with long transfer time

Kenta Oshima*, Francesco Topputo, Tomohiro Yanao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


This paper globally explores two-impulse, low-energy Earth–Moon transfers in the planar bicircular restricted four-body problem with transfer time of up to 200 days. A grid search combined with a direct transcription and multiple shooting technique reveals numerous families of optimal low-energy solutions, including some that have not been reported yet. We investigate characteristics of solutions in terms of parameters in two- and three-body dynamics, and discuss a trade-off between cost and transfer time based on Pareto-optimal solutions, with and without lunar gravity assists. Analysis of orbital characteristics reveals the role of the Sun, the Earth, and the Moon in the transfer dynamics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4
JournalCelestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 1


  • Direct transcription and multiple shooting
  • Low-energy transfer
  • Lunar gravity assist
  • Pareto-optimal solution
  • Restricted four-body problem

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Mathematical Physics
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Computational Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics


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