Low-operating-energy directly modulated lasers for short-distance optical interconnects

Shinji Matsuo, Takaaki Kakitsuka

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We review recent developments in directly modulated lasers (DMLs) with low operating energy for datacom and computercom applications. Key issues are their operating energy and the cost for employing them in these applications. To decrease the operating energy, it is important to reduce the active volume of the laser while maintaining the cavity Q-factor or photon lifetime in the cavity. Therefore, how to achieve high-reflectivity mirrors has been the main challenge in reducing the operating energy. In terms of the required output power from the lasers, the required input power into the photodetector and the transmission distance determine the lower limit of laser active volume. Therefore, the operating energy and output power are in a trade-off relationship. In designing the lasers, the cavity volume, quantum well number, and optical confinement factor are critical parameters. For reducing the cost, it is important to fabricate a large-scale photonic integrated circuit (PIC) comprising DMLs, an optical multiplexer, and monitor photodetectors because the lower assembly cost reduces the overall cost. In this context, silicon (Si) photonics technology plays a key role in fabricating large-scale PICs with low cost, and heterogeneous integration of DMLs and Si photonics devices has attracted much attention. We will describe fabrication technologies for heterogeneous integration and experimental results for DMLs on a Si substrate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)567-643
Number of pages77
JournalAdvances in Optics and Photonics
Volume10
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Sep 30
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

optical interconnects
lasers
costs
energy
photonics
cavities
photometers
silicon
output
integrated circuits
monitors
Q factors
assembly
quantum wells
mirrors
reflectance
life (durability)
fabrication
photons

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Cite this

Low-operating-energy directly modulated lasers for short-distance optical interconnects. / Matsuo, Shinji; Kakitsuka, Takaaki.

In: Advances in Optics and Photonics, Vol. 10, No. 3, 30.09.2018, p. 567-643.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

@article{4721337ae7b1421fa6d9f57aae0605a8,
title = "Low-operating-energy directly modulated lasers for short-distance optical interconnects",
abstract = "We review recent developments in directly modulated lasers (DMLs) with low operating energy for datacom and computercom applications. Key issues are their operating energy and the cost for employing them in these applications. To decrease the operating energy, it is important to reduce the active volume of the laser while maintaining the cavity Q-factor or photon lifetime in the cavity. Therefore, how to achieve high-reflectivity mirrors has been the main challenge in reducing the operating energy. In terms of the required output power from the lasers, the required input power into the photodetector and the transmission distance determine the lower limit of laser active volume. Therefore, the operating energy and output power are in a trade-off relationship. In designing the lasers, the cavity volume, quantum well number, and optical confinement factor are critical parameters. For reducing the cost, it is important to fabricate a large-scale photonic integrated circuit (PIC) comprising DMLs, an optical multiplexer, and monitor photodetectors because the lower assembly cost reduces the overall cost. In this context, silicon (Si) photonics technology plays a key role in fabricating large-scale PICs with low cost, and heterogeneous integration of DMLs and Si photonics devices has attracted much attention. We will describe fabrication technologies for heterogeneous integration and experimental results for DMLs on a Si substrate.",
author = "Shinji Matsuo and Takaaki Kakitsuka",
year = "2018",
month = "9",
day = "30",
doi = "10.1364/AOP.10.000567",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
pages = "567--643",
journal = "Advances in Optics and Photonics",
issn = "1943-8206",
publisher = "The Optical Society",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Low-operating-energy directly modulated lasers for short-distance optical interconnects

AU - Matsuo, Shinji

AU - Kakitsuka, Takaaki

PY - 2018/9/30

Y1 - 2018/9/30

N2 - We review recent developments in directly modulated lasers (DMLs) with low operating energy for datacom and computercom applications. Key issues are their operating energy and the cost for employing them in these applications. To decrease the operating energy, it is important to reduce the active volume of the laser while maintaining the cavity Q-factor or photon lifetime in the cavity. Therefore, how to achieve high-reflectivity mirrors has been the main challenge in reducing the operating energy. In terms of the required output power from the lasers, the required input power into the photodetector and the transmission distance determine the lower limit of laser active volume. Therefore, the operating energy and output power are in a trade-off relationship. In designing the lasers, the cavity volume, quantum well number, and optical confinement factor are critical parameters. For reducing the cost, it is important to fabricate a large-scale photonic integrated circuit (PIC) comprising DMLs, an optical multiplexer, and monitor photodetectors because the lower assembly cost reduces the overall cost. In this context, silicon (Si) photonics technology plays a key role in fabricating large-scale PICs with low cost, and heterogeneous integration of DMLs and Si photonics devices has attracted much attention. We will describe fabrication technologies for heterogeneous integration and experimental results for DMLs on a Si substrate.

AB - We review recent developments in directly modulated lasers (DMLs) with low operating energy for datacom and computercom applications. Key issues are their operating energy and the cost for employing them in these applications. To decrease the operating energy, it is important to reduce the active volume of the laser while maintaining the cavity Q-factor or photon lifetime in the cavity. Therefore, how to achieve high-reflectivity mirrors has been the main challenge in reducing the operating energy. In terms of the required output power from the lasers, the required input power into the photodetector and the transmission distance determine the lower limit of laser active volume. Therefore, the operating energy and output power are in a trade-off relationship. In designing the lasers, the cavity volume, quantum well number, and optical confinement factor are critical parameters. For reducing the cost, it is important to fabricate a large-scale photonic integrated circuit (PIC) comprising DMLs, an optical multiplexer, and monitor photodetectors because the lower assembly cost reduces the overall cost. In this context, silicon (Si) photonics technology plays a key role in fabricating large-scale PICs with low cost, and heterogeneous integration of DMLs and Si photonics devices has attracted much attention. We will describe fabrication technologies for heterogeneous integration and experimental results for DMLs on a Si substrate.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85055635191&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85055635191&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1364/AOP.10.000567

DO - 10.1364/AOP.10.000567

M3 - Review article

VL - 10

SP - 567

EP - 643

JO - Advances in Optics and Photonics

JF - Advances in Optics and Photonics

SN - 1943-8206

IS - 3

ER -