Machine-learning Application to Fermi-LAT Data: Sharpening All-sky Map and Emphasizing Variable Sources

Shogo Sato, Jun Kataoka, Soichiro Ito, Jun'Ichi Kotoku, Masato Taki, Asuka Oyama, Takaya Toyoda, Yuki Nakamura, Marino Yamamoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A novel application of machine-learning (ML) based image processing algorithms is proposed to analyze an all-sky map (ASM) obtained using the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. An attempt was made to simulate a 1 yr ASM from a short-exposure ASM generated from 1-week observation by applying three ML-based image processing algorithms: dictionary learning, U-net, and Noise2Noise. Although the inference based on ML is less clear compared to standard likelihood analysis, the quality of the ASM was generally improved. In particular, the complicated diffuse emission associated with the galactic plane was successfully reproduced only from 1-week observation data to mimic a ground truth (GT) generated from a 1 yr observation. Such ML algorithms can be implemented relatively easily to provide sharper images without various assumptions of emission models. In contrast, large deviations between simulated ML maps and the GT map were found, which are attributed to the significant temporal variability of blazar-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over a year. Thus, the proposed ML methods are viable not only to improve the image quality of an ASM but also to detect variable sources, such as AGNs, algorithmically, i.e., without human bias. Moreover, we argue that this approach is widely applicable to ASMs obtained by various other missions; thus, it has the potential to examine giant structures and transient events, both of which are rarely found in pointing observations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number83
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume913
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jun 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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