Manipulation of work function and surface free energy of tungsten oxide hole injection layer modified with a self-assembled monolayer

Seong Ho Kim, Hanae Otsuka, Hyea Weon Shin, Kuniaki Tanaka, Rigoberto C. Advincula, Hiroaki Usui

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As a hole injection layer for organic devices, a tungsten oxide (WO x ) thin film was vapor-deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate, on which a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of either 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS), phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMS), or octadecyltrimethoxysilane (ODS) was prepared to modify the surface characteristics. The deposition of WOx substantially increased the ionization potential (Ip) of the substrate surface, which was effective in enhancing hole injection. The formation of SAM on WOx reduced Ip, but enabled the control of the surface free energy so as to modify the growth morphology of an organic film deposited on its surface. A hole-only device was prepared using a hole transport material of N,N0-diphenyl-N,N0-bis(3- methylphenyl)-(1,10-biphenyl)-4,40-diamine (TPD). In the space-charge-limited region, a high current was drawn by using an anode that has a high Ip. At low driving voltages, however, the current flow was considerably influenced by the surface free energy. It was found that the PTMS-SAM on WOx gives a satisfactory accommodation of both the work function and the surface energy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number01BB01
JournalJapanese Journal of Applied Physics
Issue number1 PART 3
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Jan
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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