Maple-opt: A performance-oriented simultaneous technology mapping, placement, and global routing algorithm for FPGA's

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    A new field programmable gate array (FPGA) design algorithm, Maple-opt, is proposed for technology mapping, placement, and global routing subject to a given upper bound of critical signal path delay. The basic procedure of Mapleopt is viewed as top-down hierarchical bipartition of a layout region. In each bipartitioning step, technology mapping onto logic blocks of FPGA's, their placement, and global routing are determined simultaneously, which leads to a more congestionbalanced layout for routing. In addition, Maple-opt is capable of estimating a lower bound of the delay for a constrained path and of extracting critical paths based on the difference between the lower bounds and given constraint values in each bipartitioning step. Two delay-reduction procedures for the critical paths are applied; routing delay reduction and logic-block delay reduction. The routing delay reduction is done by assigning each constrained path to a single subregion when bipartitioning a region. The logic-block delay reduction is done by mapping each constrained path onto a smaller number of logic blocks. Experimental results for benchmark circuits demonstrate that Maple-opt reduces the maximum number of tracks per channel by a maximum of 38% compared with existing algorithms while satisfying almost all the path delay constraints.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)803-818
    Number of pages16
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
    Issue number9
    Publication statusPublished - 1998



    • Field programmable gate arrays (fpga's)
    • Global routing
    • Placement
    • Technology mapping

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
    • Hardware and Architecture
    • Computer Science Applications
    • Computational Theory and Mathematics

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