Here, we report the fabrication of a chemical gradient microfluidic device for single-cell cytotoxicity assays. This device consists of a microfluidic chemical gradient generator and a microcavity array that enables entrapment of cells with high efficiency at 88 ± 6% of the loaded cells. A 2-fold logarithmic chemical gradient generator that is capable of generating a serial 2-fold gradient was designed and then integrated with the microcavity array. High density single-cell entrapment was demonstrated in the device without cell damage, which was performed in 30 s. Finally, we validated the feasibility of this device to perform cytotoxicity assays by exposing cells to potassium cyanide (0-100 μM KCN). The device captured images of 4000 single cells affected by 6 concentrations of KCN and determined cell viability by counting the effected cells. Image scanning of the microcavity array was completed within 10 min using a 10× objective lens and a motorized stage. Aligning cells on the microcavity array eases cell counting, observation, imaging, and evaluation of singular cells. Thus, this platform was able to determine the cytotoxicity of chemicals at a single-cell level, as well as trace the cytotoxicity over time. This device and method will be useful for cytotoxicity analysis and basic biomedical research.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry