## Abstract

The transition probability of an isolated system for a time-dependent unitary evolution is invariant under the reversal of protocols. In this paper, we generalize the expression of microscopic reversibility to externally perturbed large quantum open systems, which provides a model-independent equality between time forward and reversed joint transition probabilities. A time-dependent external perturbation acts on the subsystem during a transient duration, and subsequently the perturbation is switched off so that the total system would thermalize. We concern ourselves with the net transition probability for the subsystem from the initial to final states after a time evolution during which the energy is irreversibly exchanged between the subsystem and reservoir. The time-reversed probability is given by the reversal of the forcing protocol and the initial ensemble. Microscopic reversibility equates the time forward and reversed probabilities, and therefore appears as a thermodynamic symmetry for open quantum systems.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 125001 |

Journal | Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical |

Volume | 45 |

Issue number | 12 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2012 Mar 30 |

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Mathematical Physics
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Modelling and Simulation
- Statistics and Probability