Mineralogical control of the form of ferric/ferrous precipitates for effective treatment of acid mine drainage

Chiharu Tokoro, Yugo Mitani, Tatsuya Kato, Abdullah Al Mamun

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    Abstract

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), which is a major source of mining pollution, often contains ferric and/or ferrous ions together with several toxic elements. The ferric and ferrous ions in AMD precipitate in several mineralogical forms after neutralization, and the ferric/ferrous precipitates become the main component of the sludge generated after AMD treatment. The precipitates are also good absorbents for several toxic elements. To avoid generation of voluminous sludges and the re-dissolution of toxic elements from the sludge, it is very important to generate well-draining and efficiently adsorbing sludges by controlling the mineralogical form of the ferric/ferrous precipitates. Green rust, which is ferric and ferrous hydroxide, is a double layer hydroxide which is able to sorb several toxic elements. The green rust transforms to goethite or lepidocrocite by rapid oxidation, whereas it transforms to magnetite at ambient temperature by slow oxidation. The magnetite is also good absorbent especially for toxic cations and it makes a compact sludge due to its magnetic properties. We investigated the magnetite generation process at ambient temperature in detail. The magnetite generation process can be divided into three steps; (i) oxidation of Fe(II), (ii) Fe(II) surface complexation to Fe(III) hydroxide, and (iii) crystallization of magnetite. More magnetite can form when the oxidation rate is slower than the crystallization rate, and optimum conditions for its formation are at pH 9.5 with mild agitation. Ferrihydrite is the most common precipitate and it is able to sorb many different toxic elements. However, it drains badly and its solid/liquid separation properties are poor. We investigated the removal mechanism of several toxic elements by co-precipitation with ferrihydrite. We confirmed that the removal mechanism by co-precipitation partly involved surface precipitation when the initial ratio of toxic elements to ferric ion was high, although the main mechanism was always surface complexation. When surface precipitation occurred, highly efficient toxic element removal with ferrihydrite could be achieved.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationIMPC 2016 - 28th International Mineral Processing Congress
    PublisherCanadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum
    Volume2016-September
    ISBN (Electronic)9781926872292
    Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jan 1
    Event28th International Mineral Processing Congress, IMPC 2016 - Quebec City, Canada
    Duration: 2016 Sep 112016 Sep 15

    Other

    Other28th International Mineral Processing Congress, IMPC 2016
    CountryCanada
    CityQuebec City
    Period16/9/1116/9/15

    Fingerprint

    Poisons
    acid mine drainage
    Magnetite
    Ferrosoferric Oxide
    Drainage
    Precipitates
    magnetite
    sludge
    Acids
    ferrihydrite
    hydroxide
    oxidation
    Oxidation
    rust disease
    Coprecipitation
    Complexation
    complexation
    ion
    Ions
    crystallization

    Keywords

    • Acid mine drainage
    • Co-precipitation
    • Ferrihydrite
    • Green rust
    • Magnetite

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Geochemistry and Petrology
    • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
    • Mechanical Engineering
    • Earth-Surface Processes

    Cite this

    Tokoro, C., Mitani, Y., Kato, T., & Al Mamun, A. (2016). Mineralogical control of the form of ferric/ferrous precipitates for effective treatment of acid mine drainage. In IMPC 2016 - 28th International Mineral Processing Congress (Vol. 2016-September). Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum.

    Mineralogical control of the form of ferric/ferrous precipitates for effective treatment of acid mine drainage. / Tokoro, Chiharu; Mitani, Yugo; Kato, Tatsuya; Al Mamun, Abdullah.

    IMPC 2016 - 28th International Mineral Processing Congress. Vol. 2016-September Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, 2016.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    Tokoro, C, Mitani, Y, Kato, T & Al Mamun, A 2016, Mineralogical control of the form of ferric/ferrous precipitates for effective treatment of acid mine drainage. in IMPC 2016 - 28th International Mineral Processing Congress. vol. 2016-September, Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, 28th International Mineral Processing Congress, IMPC 2016, Quebec City, Canada, 16/9/11.
    Tokoro C, Mitani Y, Kato T, Al Mamun A. Mineralogical control of the form of ferric/ferrous precipitates for effective treatment of acid mine drainage. In IMPC 2016 - 28th International Mineral Processing Congress. Vol. 2016-September. Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum. 2016
    Tokoro, Chiharu ; Mitani, Yugo ; Kato, Tatsuya ; Al Mamun, Abdullah. / Mineralogical control of the form of ferric/ferrous precipitates for effective treatment of acid mine drainage. IMPC 2016 - 28th International Mineral Processing Congress. Vol. 2016-September Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, 2016.
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    N2 - Acid mine drainage (AMD), which is a major source of mining pollution, often contains ferric and/or ferrous ions together with several toxic elements. The ferric and ferrous ions in AMD precipitate in several mineralogical forms after neutralization, and the ferric/ferrous precipitates become the main component of the sludge generated after AMD treatment. The precipitates are also good absorbents for several toxic elements. To avoid generation of voluminous sludges and the re-dissolution of toxic elements from the sludge, it is very important to generate well-draining and efficiently adsorbing sludges by controlling the mineralogical form of the ferric/ferrous precipitates. Green rust, which is ferric and ferrous hydroxide, is a double layer hydroxide which is able to sorb several toxic elements. The green rust transforms to goethite or lepidocrocite by rapid oxidation, whereas it transforms to magnetite at ambient temperature by slow oxidation. The magnetite is also good absorbent especially for toxic cations and it makes a compact sludge due to its magnetic properties. We investigated the magnetite generation process at ambient temperature in detail. The magnetite generation process can be divided into three steps; (i) oxidation of Fe(II), (ii) Fe(II) surface complexation to Fe(III) hydroxide, and (iii) crystallization of magnetite. More magnetite can form when the oxidation rate is slower than the crystallization rate, and optimum conditions for its formation are at pH 9.5 with mild agitation. Ferrihydrite is the most common precipitate and it is able to sorb many different toxic elements. However, it drains badly and its solid/liquid separation properties are poor. We investigated the removal mechanism of several toxic elements by co-precipitation with ferrihydrite. We confirmed that the removal mechanism by co-precipitation partly involved surface precipitation when the initial ratio of toxic elements to ferric ion was high, although the main mechanism was always surface complexation. When surface precipitation occurred, highly efficient toxic element removal with ferrihydrite could be achieved.

    AB - Acid mine drainage (AMD), which is a major source of mining pollution, often contains ferric and/or ferrous ions together with several toxic elements. The ferric and ferrous ions in AMD precipitate in several mineralogical forms after neutralization, and the ferric/ferrous precipitates become the main component of the sludge generated after AMD treatment. The precipitates are also good absorbents for several toxic elements. To avoid generation of voluminous sludges and the re-dissolution of toxic elements from the sludge, it is very important to generate well-draining and efficiently adsorbing sludges by controlling the mineralogical form of the ferric/ferrous precipitates. Green rust, which is ferric and ferrous hydroxide, is a double layer hydroxide which is able to sorb several toxic elements. The green rust transforms to goethite or lepidocrocite by rapid oxidation, whereas it transforms to magnetite at ambient temperature by slow oxidation. The magnetite is also good absorbent especially for toxic cations and it makes a compact sludge due to its magnetic properties. We investigated the magnetite generation process at ambient temperature in detail. The magnetite generation process can be divided into three steps; (i) oxidation of Fe(II), (ii) Fe(II) surface complexation to Fe(III) hydroxide, and (iii) crystallization of magnetite. More magnetite can form when the oxidation rate is slower than the crystallization rate, and optimum conditions for its formation are at pH 9.5 with mild agitation. Ferrihydrite is the most common precipitate and it is able to sorb many different toxic elements. However, it drains badly and its solid/liquid separation properties are poor. We investigated the removal mechanism of several toxic elements by co-precipitation with ferrihydrite. We confirmed that the removal mechanism by co-precipitation partly involved surface precipitation when the initial ratio of toxic elements to ferric ion was high, although the main mechanism was always surface complexation. When surface precipitation occurred, highly efficient toxic element removal with ferrihydrite could be achieved.

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