Molecular basis for tetrachromatic color vision

Toshiyuki Okano, Yoshitaka Fukada, Tǒru Yoshizawa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

17 Citations (Scopus)


Determination of the primary structures of six kinds of vertebrate visual pigments enabled us to classify them into four groups of cone-type pigments. The phylogenetic tree demonstrated that an ancestor of vertebrate visual pigments evolved into four kinds of cone-type pigments, from one of which rhodopsins diverged. Tetrachromatic color vision of chicken is discussed on the basis of both the absorption spectra of purified cone pigments and the filtering effect of colored oil-droplets.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)405-414
Number of pages10
JournalComparative Biochemistry and Physiology -- Part B: Biochemistry and
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1995 Nov
Externally publishedYes


  • Chicken Red (iodopsin)
  • Chloride binding
  • Color vision
  • Cone pigment
  • Molecular evolution
  • Molecular net charge
  • Oil-droplet
  • Photoreceptors
  • Rhodopsin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology
  • Molecular Biology

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