Moon shadow by cosmic rays under the influence of geomagnetic field and search for antiprotons at multi-TeV energies

M. Amenomori, S. Ayabe, X. J. Bi, D. Chen, S. W. Cui, Danzengluobu, L. K. Ding, X. H. Ding, C. F. Feng, Zhaoyang Feng, Z. Y. Feng, X. Y. Gao, Q. X. Geng, H. W. Guo, H. H. He, M. He, K. Hibino, N. Hotta, Haibing Hu, H. B. Hu & 65 others J. Huang, Q. Huang, H. Y. Jia, F. Kajino, K. Kasahara, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, K. Kawata, Labaciren, G. M. Le, A. F. Li, J. Y. Li, Y. Q. Lou, H. Lu, S. L. Lu, X. R. Meng, K. Mizutani, J. Mu, K. Munakata, A. Nagai, H. Nanjo, M. Nishizawa, M. Ohnishi, I. Ohta, H. Onuma, T. Ouchi, Shunsuke Ozawa, J. R. Ren, T. Saito, T. Y. Saito, M. Sakata, T. K. Sako, T. Sasaki, M. Shibata, A. Shiomi, T. Shirai, H. Sugimoto, M. Takita, Y. H. Tan, N. Tateyama, Shoji Torii, H. Tsuchiya, S. Udo, B. S. Wang, H. Wang, X. Wang, Y. G. Wang, H. R. Wu, L. Xue, Y. Yamamoto, C. T. Yan, X. C. Yang, S. Yasue, Z. H. Ye, G. C. Yu, A. F. Yuan, T. Yuda, H. M. Zhang, J. L. Zhang, N. J. Zhang, X. Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Yi Zhang, Zhaxisangzhu, X. X. Zhou

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    21 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    We have observed the shadowing of galactic cosmic ray flux in the direction of the moon, the so-called moon shadow, using the Tibet-III air shower array operating at Yangbajing (4300 m a.s.l.) in Tibet since 1999. Almost all cosmic rays are positively charged; for that reason, they are bent by the geomagnetic field, thereby shifting the moon shadow westward. The cosmic rays will also produce an additional shadow in the eastward direction of the moon if cosmic rays contain negatively charged particles, such as antiprotons, with some fraction. We selected 1.5 × 1010 air shower events with energy beyond about 3 TeV from the dataset observed by the Tibet-III air shower array and detected the moon shadow at ∼40σ level. The center of the moon was detected in the direction away from the apparent center of the moon by 0.23° to the west. Based on these data and a full Monte Carlo simulation, we searched for the existence of the shadow produced by antiprotons at the multi-TeV energy region. No evidence of the existence of antiprotons was found in this energy region. We obtained the 90% confidence level upper limit of the flux ratio of antiprotons to protons as 7% at multi-TeV energies.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)137-142
    Number of pages6
    JournalAstroparticle Physics
    Volume28
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2007 Sep

    Fingerprint

    natural satellites
    antiprotons
    geomagnetism
    moon
    cosmic rays
    Tibet
    cosmic ray showers
    energy
    confidence
    charged particles
    protons
    simulation

    Keywords

    • Air shower
    • Anti-matter
    • Cosmic rays
    • Observation and data analysis
    • Simulations

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
    • Astronomy and Astrophysics
    • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

    Cite this

    Moon shadow by cosmic rays under the influence of geomagnetic field and search for antiprotons at multi-TeV energies. / Amenomori, M.; Ayabe, S.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, D.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Ding, X. H.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Guo, H. W.; He, H. H.; He, M.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Huang, Q.; Jia, H. Y.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Labaciren; Le, G. M.; Li, A. F.; Li, J. Y.; Lou, Y. Q.; Lu, H.; Lu, S. L.; Meng, X. R.; Mizutani, K.; Mu, J.; Munakata, K.; Nagai, A.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Onuma, H.; Ouchi, T.; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Ren, J. R.; Saito, T.; Saito, T. Y.; Sakata, M.; Sako, T. K.; Sasaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, Shoji; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. G.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yan, C. T.; Yang, X. C.; Yasue, S.; Ye, Z. H.; Yu, G. C.; Yuan, A. F.; Yuda, T.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, N. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.

    In: Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 28, No. 1, 09.2007, p. 137-142.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Amenomori, M, Ayabe, S, Bi, XJ, Chen, D, Cui, SW, Danzengluobu, Ding, LK, Ding, XH, Feng, CF, Feng, Z, Feng, ZY, Gao, XY, Geng, QX, Guo, HW, He, HH, He, M, Hibino, K, Hotta, N, Hu, H, Hu, HB, Huang, J, Huang, Q, Jia, HY, Kajino, F, Kasahara, K, Katayose, Y, Kato, C, Kawata, K, Labaciren, Le, GM, Li, AF, Li, JY, Lou, YQ, Lu, H, Lu, SL, Meng, XR, Mizutani, K, Mu, J, Munakata, K, Nagai, A, Nanjo, H, Nishizawa, M, Ohnishi, M, Ohta, I, Onuma, H, Ouchi, T, Ozawa, S, Ren, JR, Saito, T, Saito, TY, Sakata, M, Sako, TK, Sasaki, T, Shibata, M, Shiomi, A, Shirai, T, Sugimoto, H, Takita, M, Tan, YH, Tateyama, N, Torii, S, Tsuchiya, H, Udo, S, Wang, BS, Wang, H, Wang, X, Wang, YG, Wu, HR, Xue, L, Yamamoto, Y, Yan, CT, Yang, XC, Yasue, S, Ye, ZH, Yu, GC, Yuan, AF, Yuda, T, Zhang, HM, Zhang, JL, Zhang, NJ, Zhang, XY, Zhang, Y, Zhang, Y, Zhaxisangzhu & Zhou, XX 2007, 'Moon shadow by cosmic rays under the influence of geomagnetic field and search for antiprotons at multi-TeV energies', Astroparticle Physics, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 137-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2007.05.002
    Amenomori, M. ; Ayabe, S. ; Bi, X. J. ; Chen, D. ; Cui, S. W. ; Danzengluobu ; Ding, L. K. ; Ding, X. H. ; Feng, C. F. ; Feng, Zhaoyang ; Feng, Z. Y. ; Gao, X. Y. ; Geng, Q. X. ; Guo, H. W. ; He, H. H. ; He, M. ; Hibino, K. ; Hotta, N. ; Hu, Haibing ; Hu, H. B. ; Huang, J. ; Huang, Q. ; Jia, H. Y. ; Kajino, F. ; Kasahara, K. ; Katayose, Y. ; Kato, C. ; Kawata, K. ; Labaciren ; Le, G. M. ; Li, A. F. ; Li, J. Y. ; Lou, Y. Q. ; Lu, H. ; Lu, S. L. ; Meng, X. R. ; Mizutani, K. ; Mu, J. ; Munakata, K. ; Nagai, A. ; Nanjo, H. ; Nishizawa, M. ; Ohnishi, M. ; Ohta, I. ; Onuma, H. ; Ouchi, T. ; Ozawa, Shunsuke ; Ren, J. R. ; Saito, T. ; Saito, T. Y. ; Sakata, M. ; Sako, T. K. ; Sasaki, T. ; Shibata, M. ; Shiomi, A. ; Shirai, T. ; Sugimoto, H. ; Takita, M. ; Tan, Y. H. ; Tateyama, N. ; Torii, Shoji ; Tsuchiya, H. ; Udo, S. ; Wang, B. S. ; Wang, H. ; Wang, X. ; Wang, Y. G. ; Wu, H. R. ; Xue, L. ; Yamamoto, Y. ; Yan, C. T. ; Yang, X. C. ; Yasue, S. ; Ye, Z. H. ; Yu, G. C. ; Yuan, A. F. ; Yuda, T. ; Zhang, H. M. ; Zhang, J. L. ; Zhang, N. J. ; Zhang, X. Y. ; Zhang, Y. ; Zhang, Yi ; Zhaxisangzhu ; Zhou, X. X. / Moon shadow by cosmic rays under the influence of geomagnetic field and search for antiprotons at multi-TeV energies. In: Astroparticle Physics. 2007 ; Vol. 28, No. 1. pp. 137-142.
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    title = "Moon shadow by cosmic rays under the influence of geomagnetic field and search for antiprotons at multi-TeV energies",
    abstract = "We have observed the shadowing of galactic cosmic ray flux in the direction of the moon, the so-called moon shadow, using the Tibet-III air shower array operating at Yangbajing (4300 m a.s.l.) in Tibet since 1999. Almost all cosmic rays are positively charged; for that reason, they are bent by the geomagnetic field, thereby shifting the moon shadow westward. The cosmic rays will also produce an additional shadow in the eastward direction of the moon if cosmic rays contain negatively charged particles, such as antiprotons, with some fraction. We selected 1.5 × 1010 air shower events with energy beyond about 3 TeV from the dataset observed by the Tibet-III air shower array and detected the moon shadow at ∼40σ level. The center of the moon was detected in the direction away from the apparent center of the moon by 0.23° to the west. Based on these data and a full Monte Carlo simulation, we searched for the existence of the shadow produced by antiprotons at the multi-TeV energy region. No evidence of the existence of antiprotons was found in this energy region. We obtained the 90{\%} confidence level upper limit of the flux ratio of antiprotons to protons as 7{\%} at multi-TeV energies.",
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    author = "M. Amenomori and S. Ayabe and Bi, {X. J.} and D. Chen and Cui, {S. W.} and Danzengluobu and Ding, {L. K.} and Ding, {X. H.} and Feng, {C. F.} and Zhaoyang Feng and Feng, {Z. Y.} and Gao, {X. Y.} and Geng, {Q. X.} and Guo, {H. W.} and He, {H. H.} and M. He and K. Hibino and N. Hotta and Haibing Hu and Hu, {H. B.} and J. Huang and Q. Huang and Jia, {H. Y.} and F. Kajino and K. Kasahara and Y. Katayose and C. Kato and K. Kawata and Labaciren and Le, {G. M.} and Li, {A. F.} and Li, {J. Y.} and Lou, {Y. Q.} and H. Lu and Lu, {S. L.} and Meng, {X. R.} and K. Mizutani and J. Mu and K. Munakata and A. Nagai and H. Nanjo and M. Nishizawa and M. Ohnishi and I. Ohta and H. Onuma and T. Ouchi and Shunsuke Ozawa and Ren, {J. R.} and T. Saito and Saito, {T. Y.} and M. Sakata and Sako, {T. K.} and T. Sasaki and M. Shibata and A. Shiomi and T. Shirai and H. Sugimoto and M. Takita and Tan, {Y. H.} and N. Tateyama and Shoji Torii and H. Tsuchiya and S. Udo and Wang, {B. S.} and H. Wang and X. Wang and Wang, {Y. G.} and Wu, {H. R.} and L. Xue and Y. Yamamoto and Yan, {C. T.} and Yang, {X. C.} and S. Yasue and Ye, {Z. H.} and Yu, {G. C.} and Yuan, {A. F.} and T. Yuda and Zhang, {H. M.} and Zhang, {J. L.} and Zhang, {N. J.} and Zhang, {X. Y.} and Y. Zhang and Yi Zhang and Zhaxisangzhu and Zhou, {X. X.}",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Moon shadow by cosmic rays under the influence of geomagnetic field and search for antiprotons at multi-TeV energies

    AU - Amenomori, M.

    AU - Ayabe, S.

    AU - Bi, X. J.

    AU - Chen, D.

    AU - Cui, S. W.

    AU - Danzengluobu,

    AU - Ding, L. K.

    AU - Ding, X. H.

    AU - Feng, C. F.

    AU - Feng, Zhaoyang

    AU - Feng, Z. Y.

    AU - Gao, X. Y.

    AU - Geng, Q. X.

    AU - Guo, H. W.

    AU - He, H. H.

    AU - He, M.

    AU - Hibino, K.

    AU - Hotta, N.

    AU - Hu, Haibing

    AU - Hu, H. B.

    AU - Huang, J.

    AU - Huang, Q.

    AU - Jia, H. Y.

    AU - Kajino, F.

    AU - Kasahara, K.

    AU - Katayose, Y.

    AU - Kato, C.

    AU - Kawata, K.

    AU - Labaciren,

    AU - Le, G. M.

    AU - Li, A. F.

    AU - Li, J. Y.

    AU - Lou, Y. Q.

    AU - Lu, H.

    AU - Lu, S. L.

    AU - Meng, X. R.

    AU - Mizutani, K.

    AU - Mu, J.

    AU - Munakata, K.

    AU - Nagai, A.

    AU - Nanjo, H.

    AU - Nishizawa, M.

    AU - Ohnishi, M.

    AU - Ohta, I.

    AU - Onuma, H.

    AU - Ouchi, T.

    AU - Ozawa, Shunsuke

    AU - Ren, J. R.

    AU - Saito, T.

    AU - Saito, T. Y.

    AU - Sakata, M.

    AU - Sako, T. K.

    AU - Sasaki, T.

    AU - Shibata, M.

    AU - Shiomi, A.

    AU - Shirai, T.

    AU - Sugimoto, H.

    AU - Takita, M.

    AU - Tan, Y. H.

    AU - Tateyama, N.

    AU - Torii, Shoji

    AU - Tsuchiya, H.

    AU - Udo, S.

    AU - Wang, B. S.

    AU - Wang, H.

    AU - Wang, X.

    AU - Wang, Y. G.

    AU - Wu, H. R.

    AU - Xue, L.

    AU - Yamamoto, Y.

    AU - Yan, C. T.

    AU - Yang, X. C.

    AU - Yasue, S.

    AU - Ye, Z. H.

    AU - Yu, G. C.

    AU - Yuan, A. F.

    AU - Yuda, T.

    AU - Zhang, H. M.

    AU - Zhang, J. L.

    AU - Zhang, N. J.

    AU - Zhang, X. Y.

    AU - Zhang, Y.

    AU - Zhang, Yi

    AU - Zhaxisangzhu,

    AU - Zhou, X. X.

    PY - 2007/9

    Y1 - 2007/9

    N2 - We have observed the shadowing of galactic cosmic ray flux in the direction of the moon, the so-called moon shadow, using the Tibet-III air shower array operating at Yangbajing (4300 m a.s.l.) in Tibet since 1999. Almost all cosmic rays are positively charged; for that reason, they are bent by the geomagnetic field, thereby shifting the moon shadow westward. The cosmic rays will also produce an additional shadow in the eastward direction of the moon if cosmic rays contain negatively charged particles, such as antiprotons, with some fraction. We selected 1.5 × 1010 air shower events with energy beyond about 3 TeV from the dataset observed by the Tibet-III air shower array and detected the moon shadow at ∼40σ level. The center of the moon was detected in the direction away from the apparent center of the moon by 0.23° to the west. Based on these data and a full Monte Carlo simulation, we searched for the existence of the shadow produced by antiprotons at the multi-TeV energy region. No evidence of the existence of antiprotons was found in this energy region. We obtained the 90% confidence level upper limit of the flux ratio of antiprotons to protons as 7% at multi-TeV energies.

    AB - We have observed the shadowing of galactic cosmic ray flux in the direction of the moon, the so-called moon shadow, using the Tibet-III air shower array operating at Yangbajing (4300 m a.s.l.) in Tibet since 1999. Almost all cosmic rays are positively charged; for that reason, they are bent by the geomagnetic field, thereby shifting the moon shadow westward. The cosmic rays will also produce an additional shadow in the eastward direction of the moon if cosmic rays contain negatively charged particles, such as antiprotons, with some fraction. We selected 1.5 × 1010 air shower events with energy beyond about 3 TeV from the dataset observed by the Tibet-III air shower array and detected the moon shadow at ∼40σ level. The center of the moon was detected in the direction away from the apparent center of the moon by 0.23° to the west. Based on these data and a full Monte Carlo simulation, we searched for the existence of the shadow produced by antiprotons at the multi-TeV energy region. No evidence of the existence of antiprotons was found in this energy region. We obtained the 90% confidence level upper limit of the flux ratio of antiprotons to protons as 7% at multi-TeV energies.

    KW - Air shower

    KW - Anti-matter

    KW - Cosmic rays

    KW - Observation and data analysis

    KW - Simulations

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    EP - 142

    JO - Astroparticle Physics

    JF - Astroparticle Physics

    SN - 0927-6505

    IS - 1

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