Multi-TeV gamma-ray observation from the crab nebula using the tibet-III air shower array finely tuned by the cosmic ray Moon's shadow

M. Amenomori, X. J. Bi, D. Chen, S. W. Cui, Danzengluobu, L. K. Ding, X. H. Ding, C. Fan, C. F. Feng, Zhaoyang Feng, Z. Y. Feng, X. Y. Gao, Q. X. Geng, H. W. Guo, H. H. He, M. He, K. Hibino, N. Hotta, Haibing Hu, H. B. Hu & 65 others J. Huang, Q. Huang, H. Y. Jia, F. Kajino, K. Kasahara, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, K. Kawata, Labaciren, G. M. Le, A. F. Li, J. Y. Li, Y. Q. Lou, H. Lu, S. L. Lu, X. R. Meng, K. Mizutani, J. Mu, K. Munakata, A. Nagai, H. Nanjo, M. Nishizawa, M. Ohnishi, I. Ohta, H. Onuma, T. Ouchi, Shunsuke Ozawa, J. R. Ren, T. Saito, T. Y. Saito, M. Sakata, T. K. Sako, M. Shibata, A. Shiomi, T. Shirai, H. Sugimoto, M. Takita, Y. H. Tan, N. Tateyama, Shoji Torii, H. Tsuchiya, S. Udo, B. Wang, H. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. G. Wang, H. R. Wu, L. Xue, Y. Yamamoto, C. T. Yan, X. C. Yang, S. Yasue, Z. H. Ye, G. C. Yu, A. F. Yuan, T. Yuda, H. M. Zhang, J. L. Zhang, N. J. Zhang, X. Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Yi Zhang, Zhaxisangzhu, X. X. Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

48 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Tibet-III air shower array, consisting of 533 scintillation detectors, has been operating successfully atYangbajing in Tibet, China since 1999. Using the data set collected by this array from 1999 November through 2005 November, we obtained the energy spectrum of γ -rays from the Crab Nebula, expressed by a power law as (dJ/dE) = (2.09 ± 0.32) × 10-12(E/3 TeV)-2.96±0.14 cm-2 s-1 TeV-1 in the energy range of 1.7-40 TeV. This result is consistent with other independent γ -ray observations by imaging air Cherenkov telescopes. In this paper,we carefully checked and tuned the performance of the Tibet-III array using data on the Moon's shadow in comparison with a detailed Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The shadow is shifted to the west of the Moon's apparent position as an effect of the geomagnetic field, although the extent of this displacement depends on the primary energy of positively charged cosmic rays. This finding enables us to estimate the systematic error in determining the primary energy from its shower size. This error is estimated to be less than ±12% in our experiment. This energy scale estimation is the first attempt among cosmic ray experiments at ground level. The systematic pointing error is also estimated to be smaller than 0. ? 011. The deficit rate and the position of the Moon's shadoware shown to be very stable within a statistical error of±6% year by year. This guarantees the long-term stability of pointlike source observation with the Tibet-III array. These systematic errors are adequately taken into account in our study of the Crab Nebula.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-72
Number of pages12
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume692
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Feb 10

Fingerprint

Crab nebula
Tibet
cosmic ray showers
moon
cosmic ray
Moon
crab
cosmic rays
gamma rays
air
systematic errors
energy
rays
geomagnetism
showers
scintillation
China
energy spectra
geomagnetic field
telescopes

Keywords

  • Cosmic rays
  • Gamma rays
  • Individual (Crab Nebula)
  • Individual (Crab pulsar)
  • Magnetic fields
  • Moon
  • Observations - ISM
  • Pulsars

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Multi-TeV gamma-ray observation from the crab nebula using the tibet-III air shower array finely tuned by the cosmic ray Moon's shadow. / Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, D.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Ding, X. H.; Fan, C.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Guo, H. W.; He, H. H.; He, M.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Huang, Q.; Jia, H. Y.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Labaciren; Le, G. M.; Li, A. F.; Li, J. Y.; Lou, Y. Q.; Lu, H.; Lu, S. L.; Meng, X. R.; Mizutani, K.; Mu, J.; Munakata, K.; Nagai, A.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Onuma, H.; Ouchi, T.; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Ren, J. R.; Saito, T.; Saito, T. Y.; Sakata, M.; Sako, T. K.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, Shoji; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. G.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yan, C. T.; Yang, X. C.; Yasue, S.; Ye, Z. H.; Yu, G. C.; Yuan, A. F.; Yuda, T.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, N. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 692, No. 1, 10.02.2009, p. 61-72.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Amenomori, M, Bi, XJ, Chen, D, Cui, SW, Danzengluobu, Ding, LK, Ding, XH, Fan, C, Feng, CF, Feng, Z, Feng, ZY, Gao, XY, Geng, QX, Guo, HW, He, HH, He, M, Hibino, K, Hotta, N, Hu, H, Hu, HB, Huang, J, Huang, Q, Jia, HY, Kajino, F, Kasahara, K, Katayose, Y, Kato, C, Kawata, K, Labaciren, Le, GM, Li, AF, Li, JY, Lou, YQ, Lu, H, Lu, SL, Meng, XR, Mizutani, K, Mu, J, Munakata, K, Nagai, A, Nanjo, H, Nishizawa, M, Ohnishi, M, Ohta, I, Onuma, H, Ouchi, T, Ozawa, S, Ren, JR, Saito, T, Saito, TY, Sakata, M, Sako, TK, Shibata, M, Shiomi, A, Shirai, T, Sugimoto, H, Takita, M, Tan, YH, Tateyama, N, Torii, S, Tsuchiya, H, Udo, S, Wang, B, Wang, H, Wang, X, Wang, Y, Wang, YG, Wu, HR, Xue, L, Yamamoto, Y, Yan, CT, Yang, XC, Yasue, S, Ye, ZH, Yu, GC, Yuan, AF, Yuda, T, Zhang, HM, Zhang, JL, Zhang, NJ, Zhang, XY, Zhang, Y, Zhang, Y, Zhaxisangzhu & Zhou, XX 2009, 'Multi-TeV gamma-ray observation from the crab nebula using the tibet-III air shower array finely tuned by the cosmic ray Moon's shadow', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 692, no. 1, pp. 61-72. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/692/1/61
Amenomori, M. ; Bi, X. J. ; Chen, D. ; Cui, S. W. ; Danzengluobu ; Ding, L. K. ; Ding, X. H. ; Fan, C. ; Feng, C. F. ; Feng, Zhaoyang ; Feng, Z. Y. ; Gao, X. Y. ; Geng, Q. X. ; Guo, H. W. ; He, H. H. ; He, M. ; Hibino, K. ; Hotta, N. ; Hu, Haibing ; Hu, H. B. ; Huang, J. ; Huang, Q. ; Jia, H. Y. ; Kajino, F. ; Kasahara, K. ; Katayose, Y. ; Kato, C. ; Kawata, K. ; Labaciren ; Le, G. M. ; Li, A. F. ; Li, J. Y. ; Lou, Y. Q. ; Lu, H. ; Lu, S. L. ; Meng, X. R. ; Mizutani, K. ; Mu, J. ; Munakata, K. ; Nagai, A. ; Nanjo, H. ; Nishizawa, M. ; Ohnishi, M. ; Ohta, I. ; Onuma, H. ; Ouchi, T. ; Ozawa, Shunsuke ; Ren, J. R. ; Saito, T. ; Saito, T. Y. ; Sakata, M. ; Sako, T. K. ; Shibata, M. ; Shiomi, A. ; Shirai, T. ; Sugimoto, H. ; Takita, M. ; Tan, Y. H. ; Tateyama, N. ; Torii, Shoji ; Tsuchiya, H. ; Udo, S. ; Wang, B. ; Wang, H. ; Wang, X. ; Wang, Y. ; Wang, Y. G. ; Wu, H. R. ; Xue, L. ; Yamamoto, Y. ; Yan, C. T. ; Yang, X. C. ; Yasue, S. ; Ye, Z. H. ; Yu, G. C. ; Yuan, A. F. ; Yuda, T. ; Zhang, H. M. ; Zhang, J. L. ; Zhang, N. J. ; Zhang, X. Y. ; Zhang, Y. ; Zhang, Yi ; Zhaxisangzhu ; Zhou, X. X. / Multi-TeV gamma-ray observation from the crab nebula using the tibet-III air shower array finely tuned by the cosmic ray Moon's shadow. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2009 ; Vol. 692, No. 1. pp. 61-72.
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abstract = "The Tibet-III air shower array, consisting of 533 scintillation detectors, has been operating successfully atYangbajing in Tibet, China since 1999. Using the data set collected by this array from 1999 November through 2005 November, we obtained the energy spectrum of γ -rays from the Crab Nebula, expressed by a power law as (dJ/dE) = (2.09 ± 0.32) × 10-12(E/3 TeV)-2.96±0.14 cm-2 s-1 TeV-1 in the energy range of 1.7-40 TeV. This result is consistent with other independent γ -ray observations by imaging air Cherenkov telescopes. In this paper,we carefully checked and tuned the performance of the Tibet-III array using data on the Moon's shadow in comparison with a detailed Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The shadow is shifted to the west of the Moon's apparent position as an effect of the geomagnetic field, although the extent of this displacement depends on the primary energy of positively charged cosmic rays. This finding enables us to estimate the systematic error in determining the primary energy from its shower size. This error is estimated to be less than ±12{\%} in our experiment. This energy scale estimation is the first attempt among cosmic ray experiments at ground level. The systematic pointing error is also estimated to be smaller than 0. ? 011. The deficit rate and the position of the Moon's shadoware shown to be very stable within a statistical error of±6{\%} year by year. This guarantees the long-term stability of pointlike source observation with the Tibet-III array. These systematic errors are adequately taken into account in our study of the Crab Nebula.",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Multi-TeV gamma-ray observation from the crab nebula using the tibet-III air shower array finely tuned by the cosmic ray Moon's shadow

AU - Amenomori, M.

AU - Bi, X. J.

AU - Chen, D.

AU - Cui, S. W.

AU - Danzengluobu,

AU - Ding, L. K.

AU - Ding, X. H.

AU - Fan, C.

AU - Feng, C. F.

AU - Feng, Zhaoyang

AU - Feng, Z. Y.

AU - Gao, X. Y.

AU - Geng, Q. X.

AU - Guo, H. W.

AU - He, H. H.

AU - He, M.

AU - Hibino, K.

AU - Hotta, N.

AU - Hu, Haibing

AU - Hu, H. B.

AU - Huang, J.

AU - Huang, Q.

AU - Jia, H. Y.

AU - Kajino, F.

AU - Kasahara, K.

AU - Katayose, Y.

AU - Kato, C.

AU - Kawata, K.

AU - Labaciren,

AU - Le, G. M.

AU - Li, A. F.

AU - Li, J. Y.

AU - Lou, Y. Q.

AU - Lu, H.

AU - Lu, S. L.

AU - Meng, X. R.

AU - Mizutani, K.

AU - Mu, J.

AU - Munakata, K.

AU - Nagai, A.

AU - Nanjo, H.

AU - Nishizawa, M.

AU - Ohnishi, M.

AU - Ohta, I.

AU - Onuma, H.

AU - Ouchi, T.

AU - Ozawa, Shunsuke

AU - Ren, J. R.

AU - Saito, T.

AU - Saito, T. Y.

AU - Sakata, M.

AU - Sako, T. K.

AU - Shibata, M.

AU - Shiomi, A.

AU - Shirai, T.

AU - Sugimoto, H.

AU - Takita, M.

AU - Tan, Y. H.

AU - Tateyama, N.

AU - Torii, Shoji

AU - Tsuchiya, H.

AU - Udo, S.

AU - Wang, B.

AU - Wang, H.

AU - Wang, X.

AU - Wang, Y.

AU - Wang, Y. G.

AU - Wu, H. R.

AU - Xue, L.

AU - Yamamoto, Y.

AU - Yan, C. T.

AU - Yang, X. C.

AU - Yasue, S.

AU - Ye, Z. H.

AU - Yu, G. C.

AU - Yuan, A. F.

AU - Yuda, T.

AU - Zhang, H. M.

AU - Zhang, J. L.

AU - Zhang, N. J.

AU - Zhang, X. Y.

AU - Zhang, Y.

AU - Zhang, Yi

AU - Zhaxisangzhu,

AU - Zhou, X. X.

PY - 2009/2/10

Y1 - 2009/2/10

N2 - The Tibet-III air shower array, consisting of 533 scintillation detectors, has been operating successfully atYangbajing in Tibet, China since 1999. Using the data set collected by this array from 1999 November through 2005 November, we obtained the energy spectrum of γ -rays from the Crab Nebula, expressed by a power law as (dJ/dE) = (2.09 ± 0.32) × 10-12(E/3 TeV)-2.96±0.14 cm-2 s-1 TeV-1 in the energy range of 1.7-40 TeV. This result is consistent with other independent γ -ray observations by imaging air Cherenkov telescopes. In this paper,we carefully checked and tuned the performance of the Tibet-III array using data on the Moon's shadow in comparison with a detailed Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The shadow is shifted to the west of the Moon's apparent position as an effect of the geomagnetic field, although the extent of this displacement depends on the primary energy of positively charged cosmic rays. This finding enables us to estimate the systematic error in determining the primary energy from its shower size. This error is estimated to be less than ±12% in our experiment. This energy scale estimation is the first attempt among cosmic ray experiments at ground level. The systematic pointing error is also estimated to be smaller than 0. ? 011. The deficit rate and the position of the Moon's shadoware shown to be very stable within a statistical error of±6% year by year. This guarantees the long-term stability of pointlike source observation with the Tibet-III array. These systematic errors are adequately taken into account in our study of the Crab Nebula.

AB - The Tibet-III air shower array, consisting of 533 scintillation detectors, has been operating successfully atYangbajing in Tibet, China since 1999. Using the data set collected by this array from 1999 November through 2005 November, we obtained the energy spectrum of γ -rays from the Crab Nebula, expressed by a power law as (dJ/dE) = (2.09 ± 0.32) × 10-12(E/3 TeV)-2.96±0.14 cm-2 s-1 TeV-1 in the energy range of 1.7-40 TeV. This result is consistent with other independent γ -ray observations by imaging air Cherenkov telescopes. In this paper,we carefully checked and tuned the performance of the Tibet-III array using data on the Moon's shadow in comparison with a detailed Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The shadow is shifted to the west of the Moon's apparent position as an effect of the geomagnetic field, although the extent of this displacement depends on the primary energy of positively charged cosmic rays. This finding enables us to estimate the systematic error in determining the primary energy from its shower size. This error is estimated to be less than ±12% in our experiment. This energy scale estimation is the first attempt among cosmic ray experiments at ground level. The systematic pointing error is also estimated to be smaller than 0. ? 011. The deficit rate and the position of the Moon's shadoware shown to be very stable within a statistical error of±6% year by year. This guarantees the long-term stability of pointlike source observation with the Tibet-III array. These systematic errors are adequately taken into account in our study of the Crab Nebula.

KW - Cosmic rays

KW - Gamma rays

KW - Individual (Crab Nebula)

KW - Individual (Crab pulsar)

KW - Magnetic fields

KW - Moon

KW - Observations - ISM

KW - Pulsars

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U2 - 10.1088/0004-637X/692/1/61

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JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

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