Muscle Activity During Scapular Muscle Exercises With Multijoint Compound Movement: Analysis Using Fine-Wire and Surface Electrodes

Gen Adachi*, Tomoki Oshikawa, Hiroshi Akuzawa, Koji Kaneoka

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Improvements in motor control of the scapular muscles are important for the prevention and rehabilitation of shoulder and elbow injuries in overhead athletes. Purpose: To clarify scapular muscle activity during multijoint compound movement exercises using fine-wire and surface electrodes. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Sixteen healthy men performed 5 types of exercises (cat and dog, trunk rotation, A-exercise, T-exercise, and Y-exercise). Muscle activity was measured as percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) by using fine-wire electrodes in the rhomboid major (Rhom) and using surface electrodes in the upper (UT), middle (MT), and lower (LT) trapezius and serratus anterior (SA) muscles. The Rhom/UT, MT/UT, LT/UT, and SA/UT muscle activity ratios were calculated. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the %MVIC and muscle activity ratios between exercises. Results: There was no significant difference in Rhom activity between the exercises (34.6-54.2%MVIC; P =.25). LT activity was significantly greater in the trunk rotation (58.0 ± 24.6%MVIC) and Y-exercise (63.2 ± 40.1%MVIC) than in the cat and dog scapular retraction (19.6 ± 9.3%MVIC) and A-exercise (28.2 ± 14.2%MVIC) (P <.05). SA activity was significantly greater in the cat and dog scapular protraction (26.7 ± 11.0%MVIC) and Y-exercise (25.6 ± 19.3%MVIC) than in the other exercises (P <.05). The SA/UT activity ratio in the cat and dog scapular protraction exercise (9.64 ± 8.48) was significantly higher than in the other exercises (P <.05). Conclusion: All the exercises were effective for activating the Rhom. The trunk rotation and Y-exercise were effective for activating the LT, and the cat and dog scapular protraction exercise was effective for activating the SA while suppressing the UT. Clinical Relevance: These results enable exercise selection based on muscle activity characteristics (moderate [20%-50%MVIC] and high [>50%MVIC] levels contribute to muscle activation) to prevent and rehabilitate shoulder and elbow injuries.

Original languageEnglish
JournalOrthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume10
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Nov
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • fine-wire electrode
  • overhead sport
  • prevention
  • rehabilitation
  • rhomboid major
  • scapular muscle exercise

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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