New air fluorescence detectors employed in the Telescope Array experiment

H. Tokuno, Y. Tameda, M. Takeda, K. Kadota, D. Ikeda, M. Chikawa, T. Fujii, M. Fukushima, K. Honda, N. Inoue, F. Kakimoto, S. Kawana, E. Kido, J. N. Matthews, T. Nonaka, S. Ogio, S. Okuda, Shunsuke Ozawa, H. Sagawa, N. SakuraiT. Shibata, A. Taketa, S. B. Thomas, T. Tomida, Y. Tsunesada, S. Udo, T. Abu-Zayyad, R. Aida, M. Allen, R. Anderson, R. Azuma, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, D. R. Bergman, S. A. Blake, R. Cady, B. G. Cheon, J. Chiba, E. J. Cho, W. R. Cho, H. Fujii, T. Fukuda, D. Gorbunov, W. Hanlon, K. Hayashi, Y. Hayashi, N. Hayashida, K. Hibino, K. Hiyama, T. Iguchi, K. Ikuta, T. Ishii, R. Ishimori, D. Ivanov, S. Iwamoto, C. C H Jui, O. Kalashev, T. Kanbe, K. Kasahara, H. Kawai, S. Kawakami, H. B. Kim, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, K. Kitamoto, K. Kobayashi, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Kondo, K. Kuramoto, V. Kuzmin, Y. J. Kwon, S. I. Lim, S. MacHida, K. Martens, J. Martineau, T. Matsuda, T. Matsuura, T. Matsuyama, I. Myers, M. Minamino, K. Miyata, H. Miyauchi, Y. Murano, T. Nakamura, S. W. Nam, M. Ohnishi, H. Ohoka, K. Oki, D. Oku, A. Oshima, I. H. Park, M. S. Pshirkov, D. Rodriguez, S. Y. Roh, G. Rubtsov, D. Ryu, A. L. Sampson, L. M. Scott, P. D. Shah, F. Shibata, H. Shimodaira, B. K. Shin, J. I. Shin, T. Shirahama, J. D. Smith, P. Sokolsky, T. J. Sonley, R. W. Springer, B. T. Stokes, S. R. Stratton, T. Stroman, S. Suzuki, Y. Takahashi, M. Takita, H. Tanaka, K. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, G. B. Thomson, P. Tinyakov, I. Tkachev, S. Troitsky, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Tsuyuguchi, Y. Uchihori, H. Ukai, G. Vasiloff, Y. Wada, T. Wong, M. Wood, Y. Yamakawa, H. Yamaoka, K. Yamazaki, J. Yang, S. Yoshida, H. Yoshii, R. Zollinger, Z. Zundel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

153 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Since 2007, the Telescope Array (TA) experiment, based in Utah, USA, has been observing ultra high energy cosmic rays to understand their origins. The experiment includes a surface detector (SD) array and three fluorescence detector (FD) stations. The FD stations, installed surrounding the SD array, measure the air fluorescence light emitted from extensive air showers (EASs) for precise determination of their energies and species. The detectors employed at one of the three FD stations were relocated from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment. At the other two stations, newly designed detectors were constructed for the TA experiment. An FD consists of a primary mirror and a camera equipped with photomultiplier tube pixels. To obtain the EAS parameters with high accuracy, understanding the FD optical characteristics is important. In this paper, we report the characteristics and installation of the new FDs and the performances of the FD components. The results of the monitored mirror reflectance during the observation time are also described in this report.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-65
Number of pages12
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume676
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jun 1

Fingerprint

Telescopes
Fluorescence
telescopes
Detectors
fluorescence
air
detectors
Air
Experiments
stations
cosmic ray showers
Mirrors
mirrors
Cosmic rays
Photomultipliers
photomultiplier tubes
installing
cosmic rays
Pixels
Cameras

Keywords

  • Air fluorescence light detectors
  • Extensive air showers
  • Ultra high energy cosmic rays

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics

Cite this

New air fluorescence detectors employed in the Telescope Array experiment. / Tokuno, H.; Tameda, Y.; Takeda, M.; Kadota, K.; Ikeda, D.; Chikawa, M.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Honda, K.; Inoue, N.; Kakimoto, F.; Kawana, S.; Kido, E.; Matthews, J. N.; Nonaka, T.; Ogio, S.; Okuda, S.; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Shibata, T.; Taketa, A.; Thomas, S. B.; Tomida, T.; Tsunesada, Y.; Udo, S.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Cho, E. J.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, H.; Fukuda, T.; Gorbunov, D.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Hiyama, K.; Iguchi, T.; Ikuta, K.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ivanov, D.; Iwamoto, S.; Jui, C. C H; Kalashev, O.; Kanbe, T.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamoto, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Kuramoto, K.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lim, S. I.; MacHida, S.; Martens, K.; Martineau, J.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuura, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Myers, I.; Minamino, M.; Miyata, K.; Miyauchi, H.; Murano, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Nam, S. W.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Oku, D.; Oshima, A.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D.; Roh, S. Y.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, J. I.; Shirahama, T.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Sonley, T. J.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T.; Suzuki, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Takita, M.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Troitsky, S.; Tsutsumi, K.; Tsuyuguchi, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Ukai, H.; Vasiloff, G.; Wada, Y.; Wong, T.; Wood, M.; Yamakawa, Y.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 676, 01.06.2012, p. 54-65.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tokuno, H, Tameda, Y, Takeda, M, Kadota, K, Ikeda, D, Chikawa, M, Fujii, T, Fukushima, M, Honda, K, Inoue, N, Kakimoto, F, Kawana, S, Kido, E, Matthews, JN, Nonaka, T, Ogio, S, Okuda, S, Ozawa, S, Sagawa, H, Sakurai, N, Shibata, T, Taketa, A, Thomas, SB, Tomida, T, Tsunesada, Y, Udo, S, Abu-Zayyad, T, Aida, R, Allen, M, Anderson, R, Azuma, R, Barcikowski, E, Belz, JW, Bergman, DR, Blake, SA, Cady, R, Cheon, BG, Chiba, J, Cho, EJ, Cho, WR, Fujii, H, Fukuda, T, Gorbunov, D, Hanlon, W, Hayashi, K, Hayashi, Y, Hayashida, N, Hibino, K, Hiyama, K, Iguchi, T, Ikuta, K, Ishii, T, Ishimori, R, Ivanov, D, Iwamoto, S, Jui, CCH, Kalashev, O, Kanbe, T, Kasahara, K, Kawai, H, Kawakami, S, Kim, HB, Kim, HK, Kim, JH, Kim, JH, Kitamoto, K, Kobayashi, K, Kobayashi, Y, Kondo, Y, Kuramoto, K, Kuzmin, V, Kwon, YJ, Lim, SI, MacHida, S, Martens, K, Martineau, J, Matsuda, T, Matsuura, T, Matsuyama, T, Myers, I, Minamino, M, Miyata, K, Miyauchi, H, Murano, Y, Nakamura, T, Nam, SW, Ohnishi, M, Ohoka, H, Oki, K, Oku, D, Oshima, A, Park, IH, Pshirkov, MS, Rodriguez, D, Roh, SY, Rubtsov, G, Ryu, D, Sampson, AL, Scott, LM, Shah, PD, Shibata, F, Shimodaira, H, Shin, BK, Shin, JI, Shirahama, T, Smith, JD, Sokolsky, P, Sonley, TJ, Springer, RW, Stokes, BT, Stratton, SR, Stroman, T, Suzuki, S, Takahashi, Y, Takita, M, Tanaka, H, Tanaka, K, Tanaka, M, Thomson, GB, Tinyakov, P, Tkachev, I, Troitsky, S, Tsutsumi, K, Tsuyuguchi, Y, Uchihori, Y, Ukai, H, Vasiloff, G, Wada, Y, Wong, T, Wood, M, Yamakawa, Y, Yamaoka, H, Yamazaki, K, Yang, J, Yoshida, S, Yoshii, H, Zollinger, R & Zundel, Z 2012, 'New air fluorescence detectors employed in the Telescope Array experiment', Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, vol. 676, pp. 54-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2012.02.044
Tokuno, H. ; Tameda, Y. ; Takeda, M. ; Kadota, K. ; Ikeda, D. ; Chikawa, M. ; Fujii, T. ; Fukushima, M. ; Honda, K. ; Inoue, N. ; Kakimoto, F. ; Kawana, S. ; Kido, E. ; Matthews, J. N. ; Nonaka, T. ; Ogio, S. ; Okuda, S. ; Ozawa, Shunsuke ; Sagawa, H. ; Sakurai, N. ; Shibata, T. ; Taketa, A. ; Thomas, S. B. ; Tomida, T. ; Tsunesada, Y. ; Udo, S. ; Abu-Zayyad, T. ; Aida, R. ; Allen, M. ; Anderson, R. ; Azuma, R. ; Barcikowski, E. ; Belz, J. W. ; Bergman, D. R. ; Blake, S. A. ; Cady, R. ; Cheon, B. G. ; Chiba, J. ; Cho, E. J. ; Cho, W. R. ; Fujii, H. ; Fukuda, T. ; Gorbunov, D. ; Hanlon, W. ; Hayashi, K. ; Hayashi, Y. ; Hayashida, N. ; Hibino, K. ; Hiyama, K. ; Iguchi, T. ; Ikuta, K. ; Ishii, T. ; Ishimori, R. ; Ivanov, D. ; Iwamoto, S. ; Jui, C. C H ; Kalashev, O. ; Kanbe, T. ; Kasahara, K. ; Kawai, H. ; Kawakami, S. ; Kim, H. B. ; Kim, H. K. ; Kim, J. H. ; Kim, J. H. ; Kitamoto, K. ; Kobayashi, K. ; Kobayashi, Y. ; Kondo, Y. ; Kuramoto, K. ; Kuzmin, V. ; Kwon, Y. J. ; Lim, S. I. ; MacHida, S. ; Martens, K. ; Martineau, J. ; Matsuda, T. ; Matsuura, T. ; Matsuyama, T. ; Myers, I. ; Minamino, M. ; Miyata, K. ; Miyauchi, H. ; Murano, Y. ; Nakamura, T. ; Nam, S. W. ; Ohnishi, M. ; Ohoka, H. ; Oki, K. ; Oku, D. ; Oshima, A. ; Park, I. H. ; Pshirkov, M. S. ; Rodriguez, D. ; Roh, S. Y. ; Rubtsov, G. ; Ryu, D. ; Sampson, A. L. ; Scott, L. M. ; Shah, P. D. ; Shibata, F. ; Shimodaira, H. ; Shin, B. K. ; Shin, J. I. ; Shirahama, T. ; Smith, J. D. ; Sokolsky, P. ; Sonley, T. J. ; Springer, R. W. ; Stokes, B. T. ; Stratton, S. R. ; Stroman, T. ; Suzuki, S. ; Takahashi, Y. ; Takita, M. ; Tanaka, H. ; Tanaka, K. ; Tanaka, M. ; Thomson, G. B. ; Tinyakov, P. ; Tkachev, I. ; Troitsky, S. ; Tsutsumi, K. ; Tsuyuguchi, Y. ; Uchihori, Y. ; Ukai, H. ; Vasiloff, G. ; Wada, Y. ; Wong, T. ; Wood, M. ; Yamakawa, Y. ; Yamaoka, H. ; Yamazaki, K. ; Yang, J. ; Yoshida, S. ; Yoshii, H. ; Zollinger, R. ; Zundel, Z. / New air fluorescence detectors employed in the Telescope Array experiment. In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 2012 ; Vol. 676. pp. 54-65.
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abstract = "Since 2007, the Telescope Array (TA) experiment, based in Utah, USA, has been observing ultra high energy cosmic rays to understand their origins. The experiment includes a surface detector (SD) array and three fluorescence detector (FD) stations. The FD stations, installed surrounding the SD array, measure the air fluorescence light emitted from extensive air showers (EASs) for precise determination of their energies and species. The detectors employed at one of the three FD stations were relocated from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment. At the other two stations, newly designed detectors were constructed for the TA experiment. An FD consists of a primary mirror and a camera equipped with photomultiplier tube pixels. To obtain the EAS parameters with high accuracy, understanding the FD optical characteristics is important. In this paper, we report the characteristics and installation of the new FDs and the performances of the FD components. The results of the monitored mirror reflectance during the observation time are also described in this report.",
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T1 - New air fluorescence detectors employed in the Telescope Array experiment

AU - Tokuno, H.

AU - Tameda, Y.

AU - Takeda, M.

AU - Kadota, K.

AU - Ikeda, D.

AU - Chikawa, M.

AU - Fujii, T.

AU - Fukushima, M.

AU - Honda, K.

AU - Inoue, N.

AU - Kakimoto, F.

AU - Kawana, S.

AU - Kido, E.

AU - Matthews, J. N.

AU - Nonaka, T.

AU - Ogio, S.

AU - Okuda, S.

AU - Ozawa, Shunsuke

AU - Sagawa, H.

AU - Sakurai, N.

AU - Shibata, T.

AU - Taketa, A.

AU - Thomas, S. B.

AU - Tomida, T.

AU - Tsunesada, Y.

AU - Udo, S.

AU - Abu-Zayyad, T.

AU - Aida, R.

AU - Allen, M.

AU - Anderson, R.

AU - Azuma, R.

AU - Barcikowski, E.

AU - Belz, J. W.

AU - Bergman, D. R.

AU - Blake, S. A.

AU - Cady, R.

AU - Cheon, B. G.

AU - Chiba, J.

AU - Cho, E. J.

AU - Cho, W. R.

AU - Fujii, H.

AU - Fukuda, T.

AU - Gorbunov, D.

AU - Hanlon, W.

AU - Hayashi, K.

AU - Hayashi, Y.

AU - Hayashida, N.

AU - Hibino, K.

AU - Hiyama, K.

AU - Iguchi, T.

AU - Ikuta, K.

AU - Ishii, T.

AU - Ishimori, R.

AU - Ivanov, D.

AU - Iwamoto, S.

AU - Jui, C. C H

AU - Kalashev, O.

AU - Kanbe, T.

AU - Kasahara, K.

AU - Kawai, H.

AU - Kawakami, S.

AU - Kim, H. B.

AU - Kim, H. K.

AU - Kim, J. H.

AU - Kim, J. H.

AU - Kitamoto, K.

AU - Kobayashi, K.

AU - Kobayashi, Y.

AU - Kondo, Y.

AU - Kuramoto, K.

AU - Kuzmin, V.

AU - Kwon, Y. J.

AU - Lim, S. I.

AU - MacHida, S.

AU - Martens, K.

AU - Martineau, J.

AU - Matsuda, T.

AU - Matsuura, T.

AU - Matsuyama, T.

AU - Myers, I.

AU - Minamino, M.

AU - Miyata, K.

AU - Miyauchi, H.

AU - Murano, Y.

AU - Nakamura, T.

AU - Nam, S. W.

AU - Ohnishi, M.

AU - Ohoka, H.

AU - Oki, K.

AU - Oku, D.

AU - Oshima, A.

AU - Park, I. H.

AU - Pshirkov, M. S.

AU - Rodriguez, D.

AU - Roh, S. Y.

AU - Rubtsov, G.

AU - Ryu, D.

AU - Sampson, A. L.

AU - Scott, L. M.

AU - Shah, P. D.

AU - Shibata, F.

AU - Shimodaira, H.

AU - Shin, B. K.

AU - Shin, J. I.

AU - Shirahama, T.

AU - Smith, J. D.

AU - Sokolsky, P.

AU - Sonley, T. J.

AU - Springer, R. W.

AU - Stokes, B. T.

AU - Stratton, S. R.

AU - Stroman, T.

AU - Suzuki, S.

AU - Takahashi, Y.

AU - Takita, M.

AU - Tanaka, H.

AU - Tanaka, K.

AU - Tanaka, M.

AU - Thomson, G. B.

AU - Tinyakov, P.

AU - Tkachev, I.

AU - Troitsky, S.

AU - Tsutsumi, K.

AU - Tsuyuguchi, Y.

AU - Uchihori, Y.

AU - Ukai, H.

AU - Vasiloff, G.

AU - Wada, Y.

AU - Wong, T.

AU - Wood, M.

AU - Yamakawa, Y.

AU - Yamaoka, H.

AU - Yamazaki, K.

AU - Yang, J.

AU - Yoshida, S.

AU - Yoshii, H.

AU - Zollinger, R.

AU - Zundel, Z.

PY - 2012/6/1

Y1 - 2012/6/1

N2 - Since 2007, the Telescope Array (TA) experiment, based in Utah, USA, has been observing ultra high energy cosmic rays to understand their origins. The experiment includes a surface detector (SD) array and three fluorescence detector (FD) stations. The FD stations, installed surrounding the SD array, measure the air fluorescence light emitted from extensive air showers (EASs) for precise determination of their energies and species. The detectors employed at one of the three FD stations were relocated from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment. At the other two stations, newly designed detectors were constructed for the TA experiment. An FD consists of a primary mirror and a camera equipped with photomultiplier tube pixels. To obtain the EAS parameters with high accuracy, understanding the FD optical characteristics is important. In this paper, we report the characteristics and installation of the new FDs and the performances of the FD components. The results of the monitored mirror reflectance during the observation time are also described in this report.

AB - Since 2007, the Telescope Array (TA) experiment, based in Utah, USA, has been observing ultra high energy cosmic rays to understand their origins. The experiment includes a surface detector (SD) array and three fluorescence detector (FD) stations. The FD stations, installed surrounding the SD array, measure the air fluorescence light emitted from extensive air showers (EASs) for precise determination of their energies and species. The detectors employed at one of the three FD stations were relocated from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment. At the other two stations, newly designed detectors were constructed for the TA experiment. An FD consists of a primary mirror and a camera equipped with photomultiplier tube pixels. To obtain the EAS parameters with high accuracy, understanding the FD optical characteristics is important. In this paper, we report the characteristics and installation of the new FDs and the performances of the FD components. The results of the monitored mirror reflectance during the observation time are also described in this report.

KW - Air fluorescence light detectors

KW - Extensive air showers

KW - Ultra high energy cosmic rays

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U2 - 10.1016/j.nima.2012.02.044

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JO - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

JF - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

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