We recently identified a cDNA encoding three novel fish hypothalamic neuropeptides, having LPXRF-NH2 from the goldfish brain. In this study, to clarify the physiological functions of these three LPXRFamide peptides (gfLPXRFa-1, -2, and -3), we analysed the localisation and hypophysiotrophic activity of these peptides using sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, in which immunoassay systems for several anterior pituitary hormones have been developed. gfLPXRFa-immunoreactive cell bodies were detected in the nucleus posterioris periventricularis of the hypothalamus and immunoreactive fibres were distributed in various brain regions and the pituitary. We also detected gfLPXRFa-immunoreactivity in the pituitary by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay combined with reversed-phase HPLC. These three gfLPXRFamide peptides stimulated the release of FSH, LH and GH, but did not affect the release of prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL) from cultured pituitary cells. These results suggest that novel fish hypothalamic LPXR-Famide peptides exist in the brain and pituitary of sockeye salmon and stimulate the release of gonadotrophins and GH from the pituitary.
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