Nucleation of W during chemical vapor deposition from WF6 and SiH4

Yuya Kajikawa, Takeshi Tsumura, Suguru Noda, Hiroshi Komiyama, Yukihiro Shimogaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A gas mixture of tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) and silane (SiH4) is generally used to form the initial layer of tungsten (W) on titanium nitride (TiN). However, the nucleation mechanism is still not clear, thus making it difficult to optimize such processes for complete filling of via holes. Therefore, in this study, we examined the nucleation process by laser-reflection measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These measurements indicate that W nucleation has two stages: monolayer formation followed by nucleation of three-dimensional (3D) islands. The monolayer formation can be expressed as Langmuir-type adsorption, and proceeds with the reduction of WF6 by Ti on TiN substrates. After monolayer formation, nucleation of 3D islands occurs and islands rapidly grow. These processes were quantitatively modeled using a simple rate equation. The results of our model agree well with our measurements of the deposited amount and coverage of islands.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3945-3950
Number of pages6
JournalJapanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1: Regular Papers and Short Notes and Review Papers
Volume43
Issue number6 B
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Jun
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Chemical vapor deposition
Nucleation
vapor deposition
nucleation
Monolayers
Titanium nitride
titanium nitrides
Tungsten
tungsten
Silanes
Gas mixtures
silanes
gas mixtures
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
photoelectron spectroscopy
Adsorption
Scanning electron microscopy
scanning electron microscopy
adsorption
Lasers

Keywords

  • Chemical vapor deposition
  • Modeling
  • Nucleation and growth
  • Silane
  • Tungsten
  • Tungsten hexafluoride

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Nucleation of W during chemical vapor deposition from WF6 and SiH4 . / Kajikawa, Yuya; Tsumura, Takeshi; Noda, Suguru; Komiyama, Hiroshi; Shimogaki, Yukihiro.

In: Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1: Regular Papers and Short Notes and Review Papers, Vol. 43, No. 6 B, 06.2004, p. 3945-3950.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kajikawa, Yuya ; Tsumura, Takeshi ; Noda, Suguru ; Komiyama, Hiroshi ; Shimogaki, Yukihiro. / Nucleation of W during chemical vapor deposition from WF6 and SiH4 In: Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1: Regular Papers and Short Notes and Review Papers. 2004 ; Vol. 43, No. 6 B. pp. 3945-3950.
@article{9684b3a6003d4392a99d7757ea05c7b8,
title = "Nucleation of W during chemical vapor deposition from WF6 and SiH4",
abstract = "A gas mixture of tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) and silane (SiH4) is generally used to form the initial layer of tungsten (W) on titanium nitride (TiN). However, the nucleation mechanism is still not clear, thus making it difficult to optimize such processes for complete filling of via holes. Therefore, in this study, we examined the nucleation process by laser-reflection measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These measurements indicate that W nucleation has two stages: monolayer formation followed by nucleation of three-dimensional (3D) islands. The monolayer formation can be expressed as Langmuir-type adsorption, and proceeds with the reduction of WF6 by Ti on TiN substrates. After monolayer formation, nucleation of 3D islands occurs and islands rapidly grow. These processes were quantitatively modeled using a simple rate equation. The results of our model agree well with our measurements of the deposited amount and coverage of islands.",
keywords = "Chemical vapor deposition, Modeling, Nucleation and growth, Silane, Tungsten, Tungsten hexafluoride",
author = "Yuya Kajikawa and Takeshi Tsumura and Suguru Noda and Hiroshi Komiyama and Yukihiro Shimogaki",
year = "2004",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1143/JJAP.43.3945",
language = "English",
volume = "43",
pages = "3945--3950",
journal = "Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1: Regular Papers & Short Notes",
issn = "0021-4922",
publisher = "Japan Society of Applied Physics",
number = "6 B",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nucleation of W during chemical vapor deposition from WF6 and SiH4

AU - Kajikawa, Yuya

AU - Tsumura, Takeshi

AU - Noda, Suguru

AU - Komiyama, Hiroshi

AU - Shimogaki, Yukihiro

PY - 2004/6

Y1 - 2004/6

N2 - A gas mixture of tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) and silane (SiH4) is generally used to form the initial layer of tungsten (W) on titanium nitride (TiN). However, the nucleation mechanism is still not clear, thus making it difficult to optimize such processes for complete filling of via holes. Therefore, in this study, we examined the nucleation process by laser-reflection measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These measurements indicate that W nucleation has two stages: monolayer formation followed by nucleation of three-dimensional (3D) islands. The monolayer formation can be expressed as Langmuir-type adsorption, and proceeds with the reduction of WF6 by Ti on TiN substrates. After monolayer formation, nucleation of 3D islands occurs and islands rapidly grow. These processes were quantitatively modeled using a simple rate equation. The results of our model agree well with our measurements of the deposited amount and coverage of islands.

AB - A gas mixture of tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) and silane (SiH4) is generally used to form the initial layer of tungsten (W) on titanium nitride (TiN). However, the nucleation mechanism is still not clear, thus making it difficult to optimize such processes for complete filling of via holes. Therefore, in this study, we examined the nucleation process by laser-reflection measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These measurements indicate that W nucleation has two stages: monolayer formation followed by nucleation of three-dimensional (3D) islands. The monolayer formation can be expressed as Langmuir-type adsorption, and proceeds with the reduction of WF6 by Ti on TiN substrates. After monolayer formation, nucleation of 3D islands occurs and islands rapidly grow. These processes were quantitatively modeled using a simple rate equation. The results of our model agree well with our measurements of the deposited amount and coverage of islands.

KW - Chemical vapor deposition

KW - Modeling

KW - Nucleation and growth

KW - Silane

KW - Tungsten

KW - Tungsten hexafluoride

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=4444316751&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=4444316751&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1143/JJAP.43.3945

DO - 10.1143/JJAP.43.3945

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:4444316751

VL - 43

SP - 3945

EP - 3950

JO - Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1: Regular Papers & Short Notes

JF - Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1: Regular Papers & Short Notes

SN - 0021-4922

IS - 6 B

ER -