Left-right (LR) patterning is an essential part of the animal body plan. Primary cilia are known to play a pivotal role in this process. In humans, genetic disorders of ciliogenesis cause serious congenital diseases. A comprehensive mechanism that regulates ciliogenesis has not been proposed so far. Here, we show that EED, a core member of the Polycomb group (PcG) genes and a presumed player in many epigenetic processes, is required for ciliogenesis and subsequent LR patterning in the medaka fish, Oryzias latipes. Moderate knockdown of oleed, a medaka homolog of EED, preferentially caused situs inversus. In the affected embryo, the cilia in Kupffer's vesicle showed various defects in their structure, position and motility. Furthermore, we demonstrated that oleed maintains the expression of Noto, which, in mice, regulates ciliogenesis and LR patterning. This study provides the first evidence for the involvement of epigenetic plasticity in LR patterning through ciliogenesis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology