### Abstract

With the Boltzmann-radiation-hydrodynamics code, which we have developed to solve numerically the Boltzmann equations for neutrino transfer, the Newtonian hydrodynamics equations, and the Newtonian self-gravity simultaneously and consistently, we simulate the collapse of a rotating core of the progenitor with a zero-age- main-sequence mass of 11.2 M and a shellular rotation of at the center. We pay particular attention in this paper to the neutrino distribution in phase space, which is affected by the rotation. By solving the Boltzmann equations directly, we can assess the rotation-induced distortion of the angular distribution in momentum space, which gives rise to the rotational component of the neutrino flux. We compare the Eddington tensors calculated both from the raw data and from the M1-closure approximation. We demonstrate that the Eddington tensor is determined by complicated interplays of the fluid velocity and the neutrino interactions and that the M1-closure, which assumes that the Eddington factor is determined by the flux factor, fails to fully capture this aspect, especially in the vicinity of the shock. We find that the error in the Eddington factor reaches ∼20% in our simulation. This is due not to the resolution but to the different dependence of the Eddington and flux factors on the angular profile of the neutrino distribution function, and hence modification to the closure relation is needed.

Original language | English |
---|---|

Article number | 181 |

Journal | Astrophysical Journal |

Volume | 872 |

Issue number | 2 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2019 Jan 1 |

### Fingerprint

### Keywords

- methods: numerical
- neutrinos
- radiative transfer
- shock waves
- supernovae: general

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science

### Cite this

*Astrophysical Journal*,

*872*(2), [181]. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab0203

**On the Neutrino Distributions in Phase Space for the Rotating Core-collapse Supernova Simulated with a Boltzmann-neutrino-radiation-hydrodynamics Code.** / Harada, Akira; Nagakura, Hiroki; Iwakami, Wakana; Okawa, Hirotada; Furusawa, Shun; Matsufuru, Hideo; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Yamada, Shoichi.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

*Astrophysical Journal*, vol. 872, no. 2, 181. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab0203

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - On the Neutrino Distributions in Phase Space for the Rotating Core-collapse Supernova Simulated with a Boltzmann-neutrino-radiation-hydrodynamics Code

AU - Harada, Akira

AU - Nagakura, Hiroki

AU - Iwakami, Wakana

AU - Okawa, Hirotada

AU - Furusawa, Shun

AU - Matsufuru, Hideo

AU - Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke

AU - Yamada, Shoichi

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - With the Boltzmann-radiation-hydrodynamics code, which we have developed to solve numerically the Boltzmann equations for neutrino transfer, the Newtonian hydrodynamics equations, and the Newtonian self-gravity simultaneously and consistently, we simulate the collapse of a rotating core of the progenitor with a zero-age- main-sequence mass of 11.2 M and a shellular rotation of at the center. We pay particular attention in this paper to the neutrino distribution in phase space, which is affected by the rotation. By solving the Boltzmann equations directly, we can assess the rotation-induced distortion of the angular distribution in momentum space, which gives rise to the rotational component of the neutrino flux. We compare the Eddington tensors calculated both from the raw data and from the M1-closure approximation. We demonstrate that the Eddington tensor is determined by complicated interplays of the fluid velocity and the neutrino interactions and that the M1-closure, which assumes that the Eddington factor is determined by the flux factor, fails to fully capture this aspect, especially in the vicinity of the shock. We find that the error in the Eddington factor reaches ∼20% in our simulation. This is due not to the resolution but to the different dependence of the Eddington and flux factors on the angular profile of the neutrino distribution function, and hence modification to the closure relation is needed.

AB - With the Boltzmann-radiation-hydrodynamics code, which we have developed to solve numerically the Boltzmann equations for neutrino transfer, the Newtonian hydrodynamics equations, and the Newtonian self-gravity simultaneously and consistently, we simulate the collapse of a rotating core of the progenitor with a zero-age- main-sequence mass of 11.2 M and a shellular rotation of at the center. We pay particular attention in this paper to the neutrino distribution in phase space, which is affected by the rotation. By solving the Boltzmann equations directly, we can assess the rotation-induced distortion of the angular distribution in momentum space, which gives rise to the rotational component of the neutrino flux. We compare the Eddington tensors calculated both from the raw data and from the M1-closure approximation. We demonstrate that the Eddington tensor is determined by complicated interplays of the fluid velocity and the neutrino interactions and that the M1-closure, which assumes that the Eddington factor is determined by the flux factor, fails to fully capture this aspect, especially in the vicinity of the shock. We find that the error in the Eddington factor reaches ∼20% in our simulation. This is due not to the resolution but to the different dependence of the Eddington and flux factors on the angular profile of the neutrino distribution function, and hence modification to the closure relation is needed.

KW - methods: numerical

KW - neutrinos

KW - radiative transfer

KW - shock waves

KW - supernovae: general

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85063483736&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85063483736&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3847/1538-4357/ab0203

DO - 10.3847/1538-4357/ab0203

M3 - Article

VL - 872

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 2

M1 - 181

ER -