Order- N orbital-free density-functional calculations with machine learning of functional derivatives for semiconductors and metals

Fumihiro Imoto, Masatoshi Imada, Atsushi Oshiyama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Orbital-free density-functional theory (OFDFT) offers a challenging way of electronic-structure calculations scaled as O(N) computation for system size N. We here develop a scheme of the OFDFT calculations based on the accurate and transferrable kinetic-energy density-functional (KEDF), which is created in an unprecedented way using appropriately constructed neural network (NN). We show that our OFDFT scheme reproduces the electron density obtained in the state-of-the-art DFT calculations and then provides accurate structural properties of 24 different systems, ranging from atoms, molecules, metals, semiconductors, and an ionic material. The accuracy and the transferability of our KEDF is achieved by our NN training system in which the kinetic-energy functional derivative (KEFD) at each real-space grid point is used. The choice of the KEFD as a set of training data is essentially important, because first it appears directly in the Euler equation, which one should solve, and second, its learning assists in reproducing the physical quantity expressed as the first derivative of the total energy. More generally, the present development of KEDF T[ρ] is in the line of systematic expansion in terms of the functional derivatives δℓ1T/δρℓ1 through progressive increase of ℓ1. The present numerical success demonstrates the validity of this approach. The computational cost of the present OFDFT scheme indeed shows the O(N) scaling, as is evidenced by the computations of the semiconductor SiC used in power electronics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number033198
JournalPhysical Review Research
Volume3
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Sep

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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