Origin of galactic spurs: New insight from radio/X-ray all-sky maps

Jun Kataoka*, Marino Yamamoto, Yuki Nakamura, Soichiro Ito, Yoshiaki Sofue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Takeshi Nakamori, Tomonori Totani

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    1 Citation (Scopus)


    In this study, we analyze giant Galactic spurs seen in both radio and X-ray all-sky maps to reveal their origins. We discuss two types of giant spurs: one is the brightest diffuse emission near the map's center, which is likely to be related to Fermi bubbles (NPSs/SPSs, north/south polar spurs, respectively), and the other is weaker spurs that coincide positionally with local spiral arms in our Galaxy (LAS, Local Arm spur). Our analysis finds that the X-ray emissions, not only from the NPS but also from the SPS, are closer to the Galactic center by ~5° compared with the corresponding radio emission. Furthermore, larger offsets of 10°-20° are observed in the LASs; however, they are attributed to different physical origins. Moreover, the temperature of the X-ray emission is kT ≃ 0.2 keV for the LAS, which is systematically lower than those of the NPS and SPS (kT ≃ 0.3 keV) but consistent with the typical temperature of Galactic halo gas. We argue that the radio/X-ray offset and the slightly higher temperature of the NPS/SPS X-ray gas are due to the shock compression/heating of halo gas during a significant Galactic explosion in the past, whereas the enhanced X-ray emission from the LAS may be due to the weak condensation of halo gas in the arm potential or star formation activity without shock heating.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article numberabdb31
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2021 Feb 10

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Astronomy and Astrophysics
    • Space and Planetary Science


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