Origin of money: Dynamic duality between necessity and unnecessity

Yuka Tauchi*, Moto Kamiura, Taichi Haruna, Yukio Pegio Gunji

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


We propose a mathematical model of economic agents to study origin of money. This multi-agent model is based on commodity theory of money, which says that a commodity used as money emerges from barter transaction. Each agent has a different value system which is given by a Heyting algebra, and exchanges one's commodities based on the value system. In each value system, necessity and unnecessity of commodities are expressed by some elements and their compliments on a Heyting Algebra. Moreover, the concept of the compliment is extended. Consequently, the duality of the necessity-unnecessity is weakened, and the exchanges of the commodities are promoted. The commodities which keeps being exchanged for a long time can correspond to money.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationComputing Anticipatory Systems - CASYS'07 - Eighth International Conference
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Dec 8
Externally publishedYes
Event8th International Conference on Computing Anticipatory Systems, CASYS'07 - Liege, Belgium
Duration: 2007 Aug 62007 Aug 11

Publication series

NameAIP Conference Proceedings
ISSN (Print)0094-243X
ISSN (Electronic)1551-7616


Conference8th International Conference on Computing Anticipatory Systems, CASYS'07


  • Barter exchange
  • Heyting algebra
  • Internal measurement
  • Multi-agent
  • Theory of money

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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