Orthographic neighborhood effects in perceptual identification and semantic categorization tasks

A test of the multiple read-out model

Christopher R. Sears, Stephen J. Lupker, Yasushi Hino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

How should a word's orthographic neighborhood affect perceptual identification and semantic categorization, both of which require a word to be uniquely identified? According to the multiple read-out model (Grainger & Jacobs, 1996), inhibitory neighborhood frequency effects should be observed in these types of tasks, and facilitatory neighborhood size effects should not be. In Experiments 1 and 2 (perceptual identification), these effects were examined as a function of stimulus visibility (i.e., high vs. low visibility) to provide as full a test as possible of the model's predictions. In the high-visibility conditions, words with large neighborhoods were reported less accurately than words with small neighborhoods, but there was no effect of neighborhood frequency (i.e., whether the word had a higher frequency neighbor). In the low-visibility conditions, low-frequency words with large neighborhoods and low-frequency words with higher frequency neighbors showed superior identification performance. In the semantic categorization task (Experiment 3), words with large neighborhoods were responded to more rapidly than words with small neighborhoods, but there was no effect of neighborhood frequency. These results are inconsistent with two of the basic premises of the multiple read-out model - namely, that facilitatory neighborhood size effects are due to a variable response criterion (the ∑ criterion), rather than to lexical selection processes, and that the lexical selection processes themselves produce an inhibitory neighborhood frequency effect (via the M criterion). Instead, the present results, in conjunction with previous findings, suggest that large neighborhoods (and perhaps higher frequency neighbors) do aid lexical selection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1537-1554
Number of pages18
JournalPerception and Psychophysics
Volume61
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1999 Nov
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Semantics
semantics
Neighborhood Effects
Orthographic Neighborhood
Semantic Categorization
experiment
Visibility
stimulus
Neighbors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

Cite this

Orthographic neighborhood effects in perceptual identification and semantic categorization tasks : A test of the multiple read-out model. / Sears, Christopher R.; Lupker, Stephen J.; Hino, Yasushi.

In: Perception and Psychophysics, Vol. 61, No. 8, 11.1999, p. 1537-1554.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{c2c3c8856a6d4afeb22adc5b2ba31ec9,
title = "Orthographic neighborhood effects in perceptual identification and semantic categorization tasks: A test of the multiple read-out model",
abstract = "How should a word's orthographic neighborhood affect perceptual identification and semantic categorization, both of which require a word to be uniquely identified? According to the multiple read-out model (Grainger & Jacobs, 1996), inhibitory neighborhood frequency effects should be observed in these types of tasks, and facilitatory neighborhood size effects should not be. In Experiments 1 and 2 (perceptual identification), these effects were examined as a function of stimulus visibility (i.e., high vs. low visibility) to provide as full a test as possible of the model's predictions. In the high-visibility conditions, words with large neighborhoods were reported less accurately than words with small neighborhoods, but there was no effect of neighborhood frequency (i.e., whether the word had a higher frequency neighbor). In the low-visibility conditions, low-frequency words with large neighborhoods and low-frequency words with higher frequency neighbors showed superior identification performance. In the semantic categorization task (Experiment 3), words with large neighborhoods were responded to more rapidly than words with small neighborhoods, but there was no effect of neighborhood frequency. These results are inconsistent with two of the basic premises of the multiple read-out model - namely, that facilitatory neighborhood size effects are due to a variable response criterion (the ∑ criterion), rather than to lexical selection processes, and that the lexical selection processes themselves produce an inhibitory neighborhood frequency effect (via the M criterion). Instead, the present results, in conjunction with previous findings, suggest that large neighborhoods (and perhaps higher frequency neighbors) do aid lexical selection.",
author = "Sears, {Christopher R.} and Lupker, {Stephen J.} and Yasushi Hino",
year = "1999",
month = "11",
language = "English",
volume = "61",
pages = "1537--1554",
journal = "Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics",
issn = "1943-3921",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Orthographic neighborhood effects in perceptual identification and semantic categorization tasks

T2 - A test of the multiple read-out model

AU - Sears, Christopher R.

AU - Lupker, Stephen J.

AU - Hino, Yasushi

PY - 1999/11

Y1 - 1999/11

N2 - How should a word's orthographic neighborhood affect perceptual identification and semantic categorization, both of which require a word to be uniquely identified? According to the multiple read-out model (Grainger & Jacobs, 1996), inhibitory neighborhood frequency effects should be observed in these types of tasks, and facilitatory neighborhood size effects should not be. In Experiments 1 and 2 (perceptual identification), these effects were examined as a function of stimulus visibility (i.e., high vs. low visibility) to provide as full a test as possible of the model's predictions. In the high-visibility conditions, words with large neighborhoods were reported less accurately than words with small neighborhoods, but there was no effect of neighborhood frequency (i.e., whether the word had a higher frequency neighbor). In the low-visibility conditions, low-frequency words with large neighborhoods and low-frequency words with higher frequency neighbors showed superior identification performance. In the semantic categorization task (Experiment 3), words with large neighborhoods were responded to more rapidly than words with small neighborhoods, but there was no effect of neighborhood frequency. These results are inconsistent with two of the basic premises of the multiple read-out model - namely, that facilitatory neighborhood size effects are due to a variable response criterion (the ∑ criterion), rather than to lexical selection processes, and that the lexical selection processes themselves produce an inhibitory neighborhood frequency effect (via the M criterion). Instead, the present results, in conjunction with previous findings, suggest that large neighborhoods (and perhaps higher frequency neighbors) do aid lexical selection.

AB - How should a word's orthographic neighborhood affect perceptual identification and semantic categorization, both of which require a word to be uniquely identified? According to the multiple read-out model (Grainger & Jacobs, 1996), inhibitory neighborhood frequency effects should be observed in these types of tasks, and facilitatory neighborhood size effects should not be. In Experiments 1 and 2 (perceptual identification), these effects were examined as a function of stimulus visibility (i.e., high vs. low visibility) to provide as full a test as possible of the model's predictions. In the high-visibility conditions, words with large neighborhoods were reported less accurately than words with small neighborhoods, but there was no effect of neighborhood frequency (i.e., whether the word had a higher frequency neighbor). In the low-visibility conditions, low-frequency words with large neighborhoods and low-frequency words with higher frequency neighbors showed superior identification performance. In the semantic categorization task (Experiment 3), words with large neighborhoods were responded to more rapidly than words with small neighborhoods, but there was no effect of neighborhood frequency. These results are inconsistent with two of the basic premises of the multiple read-out model - namely, that facilitatory neighborhood size effects are due to a variable response criterion (the ∑ criterion), rather than to lexical selection processes, and that the lexical selection processes themselves produce an inhibitory neighborhood frequency effect (via the M criterion). Instead, the present results, in conjunction with previous findings, suggest that large neighborhoods (and perhaps higher frequency neighbors) do aid lexical selection.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033220553&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033220553&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 61

SP - 1537

EP - 1554

JO - Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics

JF - Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics

SN - 1943-3921

IS - 8

ER -