Performance and durability of electrochromic windows with carbon-based counter electrode and their application in the architectural and automotive fields

T. Kubo, J. Tanimoto, M. Minami, T. Toya, Yoshinori Nishikitani, H. Watanabe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)


We propose a carbon-based counter electrode for electrochromic windows (ECWs). The electrochemical durability of carbon materials has been verified in practical applications such as commercially available electrical double-layer capacitors, and the proposed counter electrode can store charges in an electric double layer irrespective of their charge polarities. The latter factor is expected to enhance the durability of ECWs, especially against UV exposure. ECWs fabricated with the electrode have been confirmed to have potentially high durability. Some results of durability tests undertaken on electrochromic (EC) test cells and ECWs for vehicles are summarized. We also considered the possibility of the occurrence of intercalation at the carbon-based counter electrode in the coloring process using Raman scattering spectroscopy, which indicated that the electrical charge was stored at the carbon-based counter electrode in the coloration reaction by forming electric double layers, not by the intercalation of ClO4 - ions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-104
Number of pages8
JournalSolid State Ionics
Issue number1-4
Publication statusPublished - 2003 Dec
Externally publishedYes



  • Carbon-based counter electrode
  • Electrochromic windows
  • Outdoor weathering test
  • Thin films
  • Tungsten oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrochemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics

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