Perspective on the response of marine calcifiers to global warming and ocean acidification—Behavior of corals and foraminifera in a high CO2 world “hot house”

Hodaka Kawahata, Kazuhiko Fujita, Akira Iguchi, Mayuri Inoue, Shinya Iwasaki, Azumi Kuroyanagi, Ayumi Maeda, Takuya Manaka, Kazuyoshi Moriya, Haruka Takagi, Takashi Toyofuku, Toshihiro Yoshimura, Atsushi Suzuki

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

    2 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The CO2 concentration of air has increased over the last two centuries and recently surpassed 400 ppm. Carbon cycle models project CO2 concentrations of 720 to 1000 ppm for the IPCC intermediate scenario (RCP 6.0), resulting in an increase in global mean temperature of ~ 2.6 °C and a decrease in seawater pH of ~ 0.3. Together, global warming and ocean acidification are often referred to as the “evil twins” of climate change, potentially inducing severe threats in the near future. In this paper, our discussion is focused on the response of two major calcifiers, foraminifera and corals, which contribute much to the global carbonate burial rate. Photosymbiosis is regarded as an adaptive ecology for living in warm and oligotrophic oceans, especially for reef-building corals and larger reef-dwelling benthic foraminifera. As a consequence of global warming, bleaching may be a global threat to algal symbiont-bearing marine calcifying organisms under conditions of high temperature and light intensity. If CO2 is dissolved in seawater, the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) increases while pH and the saturation state of carbonate minerals decreases without any change in total alkalinity. Generally, marine calcifying organisms show decreases in calcification rates in response to acidified seawater. However, the response often differs depending on situations, species, and life-cycle stage. Some benthic foraminifera showed a positive response to low pH conditions. The Acropora digitifera coral calcification of adult branches was not reduced markedly at higher pCO2 conditions, although calcification tended to decrease versus pCO2 in both aposymbiotic and symbiotic polyps. New analytical technologies help identify important constraints on calcification processes. Based upon Ca isotopes, the transport path of Ca2+ and the degree of its activity would predominantly control the carbonate precipitation rate. Visualization of the extracellular pH distribution shows that proton pumping produces the high internal pH and large internal–external pH gap in association with foraminiferal calcification. From the perspective of a long-term change in the Earth’s surface environment, foraminifera seem to be more adaptive and robust than corals in coping with ocean warming and acidification but it is necessary to further understand the mechanisms underlying variations in sensitivity to heat stress and acidified seawater for future prediction. Since CO2 is more soluble in lower temperature seawater, ocean acidification is more critical in the polar and high-latitude regions. Additionally, older deep-water has enhanced acidity owing to the addition of CO2 from the degradation of organic matter via a synergistic effect with high pressure. With current ocean acidification, pH and the saturation state of carbonate minerals are decreasing without any change in total alkalinity. However, in the Earth’s history, it is well known that alkalinity has fluctuated significantly. Therefore, it is necessary to quantitatively reconstruct alkalinity, which is another key factor determining the saturation state of carbonate minerals. The rapid release of anthropogenic CO2 (in the present day and at the Paleocene/Eocene boundary) induces severe ocean acidification, whereas in the Cretaceous, slow environmental change, even at high levels of pCO2, could raise alkalinity, thereby neutralizing ocean acidification. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number5
    JournalProgress in Earth and Planetary Science
    Volume6
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2019 Dec 1

    Fingerprint

    global ocean
    calcification
    foraminifera
    global warming
    coral
    alkalinity
    seawater
    carbonate
    saturation
    benthic foraminifera
    reef
    mineral
    Paleocene-Eocene boundary
    polyp
    dissolved inorganic carbon
    ocean
    bleaching
    symbiont
    partial pressure
    long-term change

    Keywords

    • Alkalinity
    • Aragonite
    • Bleaching
    • Calcite
    • Carbon cycle
    • Coral
    • Foraminifera
    • Global warming
    • Ocean acidification
    • Organic matter
    • Partial pressure of CO
    • Saturation state

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)

    Cite this

    Perspective on the response of marine calcifiers to global warming and ocean acidification—Behavior of corals and foraminifera in a high CO2 world “hot house”. / Kawahata, Hodaka; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Iguchi, Akira; Inoue, Mayuri; Iwasaki, Shinya; Kuroyanagi, Azumi; Maeda, Ayumi; Manaka, Takuya; Moriya, Kazuyoshi; Takagi, Haruka; Toyofuku, Takashi; Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Atsushi.

    In: Progress in Earth and Planetary Science, Vol. 6, No. 1, 5, 01.12.2019.

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

    Kawahata, H, Fujita, K, Iguchi, A, Inoue, M, Iwasaki, S, Kuroyanagi, A, Maeda, A, Manaka, T, Moriya, K, Takagi, H, Toyofuku, T, Yoshimura, T & Suzuki, A 2019, 'Perspective on the response of marine calcifiers to global warming and ocean acidification—Behavior of corals and foraminifera in a high CO2 world “hot house”', Progress in Earth and Planetary Science, vol. 6, no. 1, 5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40645-018-0239-9
    Kawahata, Hodaka ; Fujita, Kazuhiko ; Iguchi, Akira ; Inoue, Mayuri ; Iwasaki, Shinya ; Kuroyanagi, Azumi ; Maeda, Ayumi ; Manaka, Takuya ; Moriya, Kazuyoshi ; Takagi, Haruka ; Toyofuku, Takashi ; Yoshimura, Toshihiro ; Suzuki, Atsushi. / Perspective on the response of marine calcifiers to global warming and ocean acidification—Behavior of corals and foraminifera in a high CO2 world “hot house”. In: Progress in Earth and Planetary Science. 2019 ; Vol. 6, No. 1.
    @article{9e578db3ca734ec09068a8600562dc9d,
    title = "Perspective on the response of marine calcifiers to global warming and ocean acidification—Behavior of corals and foraminifera in a high CO2 world “hot house”",
    abstract = "The CO2 concentration of air has increased over the last two centuries and recently surpassed 400 ppm. Carbon cycle models project CO2 concentrations of 720 to 1000 ppm for the IPCC intermediate scenario (RCP 6.0), resulting in an increase in global mean temperature of ~ 2.6 °C and a decrease in seawater pH of ~ 0.3. Together, global warming and ocean acidification are often referred to as the “evil twins” of climate change, potentially inducing severe threats in the near future. In this paper, our discussion is focused on the response of two major calcifiers, foraminifera and corals, which contribute much to the global carbonate burial rate. Photosymbiosis is regarded as an adaptive ecology for living in warm and oligotrophic oceans, especially for reef-building corals and larger reef-dwelling benthic foraminifera. As a consequence of global warming, bleaching may be a global threat to algal symbiont-bearing marine calcifying organisms under conditions of high temperature and light intensity. If CO2 is dissolved in seawater, the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) increases while pH and the saturation state of carbonate minerals decreases without any change in total alkalinity. Generally, marine calcifying organisms show decreases in calcification rates in response to acidified seawater. However, the response often differs depending on situations, species, and life-cycle stage. Some benthic foraminifera showed a positive response to low pH conditions. The Acropora digitifera coral calcification of adult branches was not reduced markedly at higher pCO2 conditions, although calcification tended to decrease versus pCO2 in both aposymbiotic and symbiotic polyps. New analytical technologies help identify important constraints on calcification processes. Based upon Ca isotopes, the transport path of Ca2+ and the degree of its activity would predominantly control the carbonate precipitation rate. Visualization of the extracellular pH distribution shows that proton pumping produces the high internal pH and large internal–external pH gap in association with foraminiferal calcification. From the perspective of a long-term change in the Earth’s surface environment, foraminifera seem to be more adaptive and robust than corals in coping with ocean warming and acidification but it is necessary to further understand the mechanisms underlying variations in sensitivity to heat stress and acidified seawater for future prediction. Since CO2 is more soluble in lower temperature seawater, ocean acidification is more critical in the polar and high-latitude regions. Additionally, older deep-water has enhanced acidity owing to the addition of CO2 from the degradation of organic matter via a synergistic effect with high pressure. With current ocean acidification, pH and the saturation state of carbonate minerals are decreasing without any change in total alkalinity. However, in the Earth’s history, it is well known that alkalinity has fluctuated significantly. Therefore, it is necessary to quantitatively reconstruct alkalinity, which is another key factor determining the saturation state of carbonate minerals. The rapid release of anthropogenic CO2 (in the present day and at the Paleocene/Eocene boundary) induces severe ocean acidification, whereas in the Cretaceous, slow environmental change, even at high levels of pCO2, could raise alkalinity, thereby neutralizing ocean acidification. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]",
    keywords = "Alkalinity, Aragonite, Bleaching, Calcite, Carbon cycle, Coral, Foraminifera, Global warming, Ocean acidification, Organic matter, Partial pressure of CO, Saturation state",
    author = "Hodaka Kawahata and Kazuhiko Fujita and Akira Iguchi and Mayuri Inoue and Shinya Iwasaki and Azumi Kuroyanagi and Ayumi Maeda and Takuya Manaka and Kazuyoshi Moriya and Haruka Takagi and Takashi Toyofuku and Toshihiro Yoshimura and Atsushi Suzuki",
    year = "2019",
    month = "12",
    day = "1",
    doi = "10.1186/s40645-018-0239-9",
    language = "English",
    volume = "6",
    journal = "Progress in Earth and Planetary Science",
    issn = "2197-4284",
    publisher = "Springer Open",
    number = "1",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Perspective on the response of marine calcifiers to global warming and ocean acidification—Behavior of corals and foraminifera in a high CO2 world “hot house”

    AU - Kawahata, Hodaka

    AU - Fujita, Kazuhiko

    AU - Iguchi, Akira

    AU - Inoue, Mayuri

    AU - Iwasaki, Shinya

    AU - Kuroyanagi, Azumi

    AU - Maeda, Ayumi

    AU - Manaka, Takuya

    AU - Moriya, Kazuyoshi

    AU - Takagi, Haruka

    AU - Toyofuku, Takashi

    AU - Yoshimura, Toshihiro

    AU - Suzuki, Atsushi

    PY - 2019/12/1

    Y1 - 2019/12/1

    N2 - The CO2 concentration of air has increased over the last two centuries and recently surpassed 400 ppm. Carbon cycle models project CO2 concentrations of 720 to 1000 ppm for the IPCC intermediate scenario (RCP 6.0), resulting in an increase in global mean temperature of ~ 2.6 °C and a decrease in seawater pH of ~ 0.3. Together, global warming and ocean acidification are often referred to as the “evil twins” of climate change, potentially inducing severe threats in the near future. In this paper, our discussion is focused on the response of two major calcifiers, foraminifera and corals, which contribute much to the global carbonate burial rate. Photosymbiosis is regarded as an adaptive ecology for living in warm and oligotrophic oceans, especially for reef-building corals and larger reef-dwelling benthic foraminifera. As a consequence of global warming, bleaching may be a global threat to algal symbiont-bearing marine calcifying organisms under conditions of high temperature and light intensity. If CO2 is dissolved in seawater, the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) increases while pH and the saturation state of carbonate minerals decreases without any change in total alkalinity. Generally, marine calcifying organisms show decreases in calcification rates in response to acidified seawater. However, the response often differs depending on situations, species, and life-cycle stage. Some benthic foraminifera showed a positive response to low pH conditions. The Acropora digitifera coral calcification of adult branches was not reduced markedly at higher pCO2 conditions, although calcification tended to decrease versus pCO2 in both aposymbiotic and symbiotic polyps. New analytical technologies help identify important constraints on calcification processes. Based upon Ca isotopes, the transport path of Ca2+ and the degree of its activity would predominantly control the carbonate precipitation rate. Visualization of the extracellular pH distribution shows that proton pumping produces the high internal pH and large internal–external pH gap in association with foraminiferal calcification. From the perspective of a long-term change in the Earth’s surface environment, foraminifera seem to be more adaptive and robust than corals in coping with ocean warming and acidification but it is necessary to further understand the mechanisms underlying variations in sensitivity to heat stress and acidified seawater for future prediction. Since CO2 is more soluble in lower temperature seawater, ocean acidification is more critical in the polar and high-latitude regions. Additionally, older deep-water has enhanced acidity owing to the addition of CO2 from the degradation of organic matter via a synergistic effect with high pressure. With current ocean acidification, pH and the saturation state of carbonate minerals are decreasing without any change in total alkalinity. However, in the Earth’s history, it is well known that alkalinity has fluctuated significantly. Therefore, it is necessary to quantitatively reconstruct alkalinity, which is another key factor determining the saturation state of carbonate minerals. The rapid release of anthropogenic CO2 (in the present day and at the Paleocene/Eocene boundary) induces severe ocean acidification, whereas in the Cretaceous, slow environmental change, even at high levels of pCO2, could raise alkalinity, thereby neutralizing ocean acidification. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

    AB - The CO2 concentration of air has increased over the last two centuries and recently surpassed 400 ppm. Carbon cycle models project CO2 concentrations of 720 to 1000 ppm for the IPCC intermediate scenario (RCP 6.0), resulting in an increase in global mean temperature of ~ 2.6 °C and a decrease in seawater pH of ~ 0.3. Together, global warming and ocean acidification are often referred to as the “evil twins” of climate change, potentially inducing severe threats in the near future. In this paper, our discussion is focused on the response of two major calcifiers, foraminifera and corals, which contribute much to the global carbonate burial rate. Photosymbiosis is regarded as an adaptive ecology for living in warm and oligotrophic oceans, especially for reef-building corals and larger reef-dwelling benthic foraminifera. As a consequence of global warming, bleaching may be a global threat to algal symbiont-bearing marine calcifying organisms under conditions of high temperature and light intensity. If CO2 is dissolved in seawater, the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) increases while pH and the saturation state of carbonate minerals decreases without any change in total alkalinity. Generally, marine calcifying organisms show decreases in calcification rates in response to acidified seawater. However, the response often differs depending on situations, species, and life-cycle stage. Some benthic foraminifera showed a positive response to low pH conditions. The Acropora digitifera coral calcification of adult branches was not reduced markedly at higher pCO2 conditions, although calcification tended to decrease versus pCO2 in both aposymbiotic and symbiotic polyps. New analytical technologies help identify important constraints on calcification processes. Based upon Ca isotopes, the transport path of Ca2+ and the degree of its activity would predominantly control the carbonate precipitation rate. Visualization of the extracellular pH distribution shows that proton pumping produces the high internal pH and large internal–external pH gap in association with foraminiferal calcification. From the perspective of a long-term change in the Earth’s surface environment, foraminifera seem to be more adaptive and robust than corals in coping with ocean warming and acidification but it is necessary to further understand the mechanisms underlying variations in sensitivity to heat stress and acidified seawater for future prediction. Since CO2 is more soluble in lower temperature seawater, ocean acidification is more critical in the polar and high-latitude regions. Additionally, older deep-water has enhanced acidity owing to the addition of CO2 from the degradation of organic matter via a synergistic effect with high pressure. With current ocean acidification, pH and the saturation state of carbonate minerals are decreasing without any change in total alkalinity. However, in the Earth’s history, it is well known that alkalinity has fluctuated significantly. Therefore, it is necessary to quantitatively reconstruct alkalinity, which is another key factor determining the saturation state of carbonate minerals. The rapid release of anthropogenic CO2 (in the present day and at the Paleocene/Eocene boundary) induces severe ocean acidification, whereas in the Cretaceous, slow environmental change, even at high levels of pCO2, could raise alkalinity, thereby neutralizing ocean acidification. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

    KW - Alkalinity

    KW - Aragonite

    KW - Bleaching

    KW - Calcite

    KW - Carbon cycle

    KW - Coral

    KW - Foraminifera

    KW - Global warming

    KW - Ocean acidification

    KW - Organic matter

    KW - Partial pressure of CO

    KW - Saturation state

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85060274742&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85060274742&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1186/s40645-018-0239-9

    DO - 10.1186/s40645-018-0239-9

    M3 - Review article

    VL - 6

    JO - Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

    JF - Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

    SN - 2197-4284

    IS - 1

    M1 - 5

    ER -