Nonwoven fibrous membranes were formed from electrospinning lecithin solutions in a single processing step. As the concentration of lecithin increased, the micellar morphology evolved from spherical to cylindrical, and at higher concentrations the cylindrical micelles overlapped and entangled in a fashion similar to polymers in semi-dilute or concentrated solutions. At concentrations above the onset of entanglements of the wormlike micelles, electrospun fibers were fabricated with diameters on the order of 1 to 5 micrometers. The electrospun phospholipid fibers offer the potential for direct fabrication of biologically based, high-surface-area membranes without the use of multiple synthetic steps, complicated electrospinning designs, or postprocessing surface treatments.
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