PKS 1502+106

A new and distant gamma-ray blazar in outburst discovered by the fermi large area telescope

E. Angelakis, A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W. B. Atwood, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B. M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E. D. Bloom, G. Bogaert, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez & 188 others M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T. H. Burnett, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö Çelik, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, C. D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S. W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, E. C. Ferrara, W. B. Focke, M. Frailis, L. Fuhrmann, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, M. H. Grondin, J. E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, Y. Hanabata, A. K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, R. E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, R. P. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, M. Kadler, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, Jun Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. L. Kocian, F. Kuehn, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G. M. Madejski, A. Makeev, M. Marelli, E. Massaro, W. Max-Moerbeck, M. N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J. E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A. A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, P. L. Nolan, J. P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J. H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pavlidou, T. J. Pearson, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T. A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Readhead, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, J. L. Richards, S. Ritz, L. S. Rochester, A. Y. Rodriguez, R. W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H. F W Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P. M Saz Parkinson, J. D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, M. S. Shaw, E. J. Siskind, D. A. Smith, P. D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M. Stevenson, M. S. Strickman, D. J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J. B. Thayer, J. G. Thayer, D. J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, D. F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, P. Ubertini, Y. Uchiyama, T. L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A. P. Waite, P. Wang, B. L. Winer, K. S. Wood, H. Yasuda, T. Ylinen, J. A. Zensus, M. Ziegler, E. Angelakis, T. Hovatta, E. Hoversten, Y. Ikejiri, K. S. Kawabata, Y. Y. Kovalev, Yu A. Kovalev, T. P. Krichbaum, M. L. Lister, A. Lähteenmäki, N. Marchili, P. Ogle, C. Pagani, A. B. Pushkarev, K. Sakimoto, M. Sasada, M. Tornikoski, M. Uemura, M. Yamanaka, T. Yamashita

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    44 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope discovered a rapid (5 days duration), high-energy (E > 100 MeV) gamma-ray outburst from a source identified with the blazar PKS 1502+106 (OR 103, S3 1502+10, z = 1.839) starting on 2008 August 5 (23 UTC, MJD 54683.95), and followed by bright and variable flux over the next few months. Results on the gamma-ray localization and identification, as well as spectral and temporal behavior during the first months of the Fermi all-sky survey, are reported here in conjunction with a multiwaveband characterization as a result of one of the first Fermi multifrequency campaigns. The campaign included a Swift ToO (followed up by a 16 day observation on August 7-22, MJD 54685-54700), VLBA (within the MOJAVE program), Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) 40 m, Effelsberg-100 m, Metsähovi-14 m, RATAN-600, and Kanata-Hiroshima radio/optical observations. Results from the analysis of archival observations by INTEGRAL, XMM-Newton, and Spitzer space telescopes are reported for a more complete picture of this new gamma-ray blazar. PKS 1502+106 is a sub-GeV peaked, powerful flat spectrum radio quasar (luminosity at E > 100 MeV, L γ, is about 1.1 × 1049 erg s-1, and black hole mass likely close to 109 M ), exhibiting marked gamma-ray bolometric dominance, in particular during the asymmetric outburst (L γ/L opt 100, and 5 day averaged flux F E > 100 MeV = 2.91 1.4 × 10-6 ph cm-2 s-1), which was characterized by a factor greater than 3 of flux increase in less than 12 hr. The outburst was observed simultaneously from optical to X-ray bands (F 0.3 - 10 keV = 2.18+0.15 -0.12 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1, and hard photon index 1.5, similar to past values) with a flux increase of less than 1 order of magnitude with respect to past observations, and was likely controlled by Comptonization of external-jet photons produced in the broad-line region (BLR) in the gamma-ray band. No evidence of a possible blue bump signature was observed in the optical-UV continuum spectrum, while some hints for a possible 4 day time lag with respect to the gamma-ray flare were found. Nonetheless, the properties of PKS 1502+106 and the strict optical/UV, X-, and gamma-ray cross-correlations suggest the contribution of the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC), in-jet, process should dominate from radio to X-rays. This mechanism may also be responsible for the consistent gamma-ray variability observed by the LAT on longer timescales, after the ignition of activity at these energies provided by the BLR-dissipated outburst. Modulations and subsequent minor, rapid flare events were detected, with a general fluctuation mode between pink-noise and a random-walk. The averaged gamma-ray spectrum showed a deviation from a simple power law, and can be described by a log-parabola curved model peaking around 0.4-0.5 GeV. The maximum energy of photons detected from the source in the first four months of LAT observations was 15.8 GeV, with no significant consequences on extragalactic background light predictions. A possible radio counterpart of the gamma-ray outburst can be assumed only if a delay of more than three months is considered on the basis of opacity effects at cm and longer wavelengths. The rotation of the electric vector position angle observed by VLBA from 2007 to 2008 could represent a slow field ordering and alignment with respect to the jet axis, likely a precursor feature of the ejection of a superluminal radio knot and the high-energy outburst. This observing campaign provides more insight into the connection between MeV-GeV flares and the moving, polarized structures observed by the VLBI.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)810-827
    Number of pages18
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume710
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

    Fingerprint

    outburst
    gamma rays
    telescopes
    radio
    erg
    flares
    energy
    very long baseline interferometry
    photons
    Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope
    parabolas
    power law
    radio spectra
    Space Infrared Telescope Facility
    very long base interferometry
    observatory
    gamma ray spectra
    daytime
    XMM-Newton telescope
    opacity

    Keywords

    • Galaxies: active
    • Galaxies: jets
    • Gamma rays: general
    • Quasars: general
    • X-rays: galaxies

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Space and Planetary Science
    • Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Cite this

    Angelakis, E., Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., ... Yamashita, T. (2010). PKS 1502+106: A new and distant gamma-ray blazar in outburst discovered by the fermi large area telescope. Astrophysical Journal, 710(1), 810-827. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/710/1/810

    PKS 1502+106 : A new and distant gamma-ray blazar in outburst discovered by the fermi large area telescope. / Angelakis, E.; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Bogaert, G.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; Dermer, C. D.; De Angelis, A.; De Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Frailis, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, W. N.; Kadler, M.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, Jun; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocian, M. L.; Kuehn, F.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, E.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Pearson, T. J.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Readhead, A.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Richards, J. L.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F W; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Parkinson, P. M Saz; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stevenson, M.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Ubertini, P.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yasuda, H.; Ylinen, T.; Zensus, J. A.; Ziegler, M.; Angelakis, E.; Hovatta, T.; Hoversten, E.; Ikejiri, Y.; Kawabata, K. S.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kovalev, Yu A.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Lister, M. L.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Marchili, N.; Ogle, P.; Pagani, C.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Sakimoto, K.; Sasada, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Uemura, M.; Yamanaka, M.; Yamashita, T.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 710, No. 1, 2010, p. 810-827.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Angelakis, E, Abdo, AA, Ackermann, M, Ajello, M, Atwood, WB, Axelsson, M, Baldini, L, Ballet, J, Barbiellini, G, Bastieri, D, Baughman, BM, Bechtol, K, Bellazzini, R, Berenji, B, Bloom, ED, Bogaert, G, Bonamente, E, Borgland, AW, Bregeon, J, Brez, A, Brigida, M, Bruel, P, Burnett, TH, Caliandro, GA, Cameron, RA, Caraveo, PA, Casandjian, JM, Cavazzuti, E, Cecchi, C, Çelik, Ö, Chekhtman, A, Cheung, CC, Chiang, J, Ciprini, S, Claus, R, Cohen-Tanugi, J, Conrad, J, Cutini, S, Dermer, CD, De Angelis, A, De Palma, F, Digel, SW, Do Couto E Silva, E, Drell, PS, Dubois, R, Dumora, D, Farnier, C, Favuzzi, C, Fegan, SJ, Ferrara, EC, Focke, WB, Frailis, M, Fuhrmann, L, Fukazawa, Y, Funk, S, Fusco, P, Gargano, F, Gasparrini, D, Gehrels, N, Germani, S, Giebels, B, Giglietto, N, Giordano, F, Giroletti, M, Glanzman, T, Godfrey, G, Grenier, IA, Grondin, MH, Grove, JE, Guillemot, L, Guiriec, S, Hanabata, Y, Harding, AK, Hayashida, M, Hays, E, Hughes, RE, Jóhannesson, G, Johnson, AS, Johnson, RP, Johnson, WN, Kadler, M, Kamae, T, Katagiri, H, Kataoka, J, Kerr, M, Knödlseder, J, Kocian, ML, Kuehn, F, Kuss, M, Lande, J, Latronico, L, Lemoine-Goumard, M, Longo, F, Loparco, F, Lott, B, Lovellette, MN, Lubrano, P, Madejski, GM, Makeev, A, Marelli, M, Massaro, E, Max-Moerbeck, W, Mazziotta, MN, McConville, W, McEnery, JE, Meurer, C, Michelson, PF, Mitthumsiri, W, Mizuno, T, Moiseev, AA, Monte, C, Monzani, ME, Morselli, A, Moskalenko, IV, Murgia, S, Nolan, PL, Norris, JP, Nuss, E, Ohsugi, T, Omodei, N, Orlando, E, Ormes, JF, Ozaki, M, Paneque, D, Panetta, JH, Parent, D, Pavlidou, V, Pearson, TJ, Pelassa, V, Pepe, M, Pesce-Rollins, M, Piron, F, Porter, TA, Rainò, S, Rando, R, Razzano, M, Razzaque, S, Readhead, A, Reimer, A, Reimer, O, Reposeur, T, Richards, JL, Ritz, S, Rochester, LS, Rodriguez, AY, Romani, RW, Roth, M, Ryde, F, Sadrozinski, HFW, Sanchez, D, Sander, A, Parkinson, PMS, Scargle, JD, Sgrò, C, Shaw, MS, Siskind, EJ, Smith, DA, Smith, PD, Spandre, G, Spinelli, P, Stevenson, M, Strickman, MS, Suson, DJ, Tajima, H, Takahashi, H, Tanaka, T, Thayer, JB, Thayer, JG, Thompson, DJ, Tibaldo, L, Tibolla, O, Torres, DF, Tosti, G, Tramacere, A, Ubertini, P, Uchiyama, Y, Usher, TL, Vasileiou, V, Vilchez, N, Vitale, V, Waite, AP, Wang, P, Winer, BL, Wood, KS, Yasuda, H, Ylinen, T, Zensus, JA, Ziegler, M, Angelakis, E, Hovatta, T, Hoversten, E, Ikejiri, Y, Kawabata, KS, Kovalev, YY, Kovalev, YA, Krichbaum, TP, Lister, ML, Lähteenmäki, A, Marchili, N, Ogle, P, Pagani, C, Pushkarev, AB, Sakimoto, K, Sasada, M, Tornikoski, M, Uemura, M, Yamanaka, M & Yamashita, T 2010, 'PKS 1502+106: A new and distant gamma-ray blazar in outburst discovered by the fermi large area telescope', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 710, no. 1, pp. 810-827. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/710/1/810
    Angelakis, E. ; Abdo, A. A. ; Ackermann, M. ; Ajello, M. ; Atwood, W. B. ; Axelsson, M. ; Baldini, L. ; Ballet, J. ; Barbiellini, G. ; Bastieri, D. ; Baughman, B. M. ; Bechtol, K. ; Bellazzini, R. ; Berenji, B. ; Bloom, E. D. ; Bogaert, G. ; Bonamente, E. ; Borgland, A. W. ; Bregeon, J. ; Brez, A. ; Brigida, M. ; Bruel, P. ; Burnett, T. H. ; Caliandro, G. A. ; Cameron, R. A. ; Caraveo, P. A. ; Casandjian, J. M. ; Cavazzuti, E. ; Cecchi, C. ; Çelik, Ö ; Chekhtman, A. ; Cheung, C. C. ; Chiang, J. ; Ciprini, S. ; Claus, R. ; Cohen-Tanugi, J. ; Conrad, J. ; Cutini, S. ; Dermer, C. D. ; De Angelis, A. ; De Palma, F. ; Digel, S. W. ; Do Couto E Silva, E. ; Drell, P. S. ; Dubois, R. ; Dumora, D. ; Farnier, C. ; Favuzzi, C. ; Fegan, S. J. ; Ferrara, E. C. ; Focke, W. B. ; Frailis, M. ; Fuhrmann, L. ; Fukazawa, Y. ; Funk, S. ; Fusco, P. ; Gargano, F. ; Gasparrini, D. ; Gehrels, N. ; Germani, S. ; Giebels, B. ; Giglietto, N. ; Giordano, F. ; Giroletti, M. ; Glanzman, T. ; Godfrey, G. ; Grenier, I. A. ; Grondin, M. H. ; Grove, J. E. ; Guillemot, L. ; Guiriec, S. ; Hanabata, Y. ; Harding, A. K. ; Hayashida, M. ; Hays, E. ; Hughes, R. E. ; Jóhannesson, G. ; Johnson, A. S. ; Johnson, R. P. ; Johnson, W. N. ; Kadler, M. ; Kamae, T. ; Katagiri, H. ; Kataoka, Jun ; Kerr, M. ; Knödlseder, J. ; Kocian, M. L. ; Kuehn, F. ; Kuss, M. ; Lande, J. ; Latronico, L. ; Lemoine-Goumard, M. ; Longo, F. ; Loparco, F. ; Lott, B. ; Lovellette, M. N. ; Lubrano, P. ; Madejski, G. M. ; Makeev, A. ; Marelli, M. ; Massaro, E. ; Max-Moerbeck, W. ; Mazziotta, M. N. ; McConville, W. ; McEnery, J. E. ; Meurer, C. ; Michelson, P. F. ; Mitthumsiri, W. ; Mizuno, T. ; Moiseev, A. A. ; Monte, C. ; Monzani, M. E. ; Morselli, A. ; Moskalenko, I. V. ; Murgia, S. ; Nolan, P. L. ; Norris, J. P. ; Nuss, E. ; Ohsugi, T. ; Omodei, N. ; Orlando, E. ; Ormes, J. F. ; Ozaki, M. ; Paneque, D. ; Panetta, J. H. ; Parent, D. ; Pavlidou, V. ; Pearson, T. J. ; Pelassa, V. ; Pepe, M. ; Pesce-Rollins, M. ; Piron, F. ; Porter, T. A. ; Rainò, S. ; Rando, R. ; Razzano, M. ; Razzaque, S. ; Readhead, A. ; Reimer, A. ; Reimer, O. ; Reposeur, T. ; Richards, J. L. ; Ritz, S. ; Rochester, L. S. ; Rodriguez, A. Y. ; Romani, R. W. ; Roth, M. ; Ryde, F. ; Sadrozinski, H. F W ; Sanchez, D. ; Sander, A. ; Parkinson, P. M Saz ; Scargle, J. D. ; Sgrò, C. ; Shaw, M. S. ; Siskind, E. J. ; Smith, D. A. ; Smith, P. D. ; Spandre, G. ; Spinelli, P. ; Stevenson, M. ; Strickman, M. S. ; Suson, D. J. ; Tajima, H. ; Takahashi, H. ; Tanaka, T. ; Thayer, J. B. ; Thayer, J. G. ; Thompson, D. J. ; Tibaldo, L. ; Tibolla, O. ; Torres, D. F. ; Tosti, G. ; Tramacere, A. ; Ubertini, P. ; Uchiyama, Y. ; Usher, T. L. ; Vasileiou, V. ; Vilchez, N. ; Vitale, V. ; Waite, A. P. ; Wang, P. ; Winer, B. L. ; Wood, K. S. ; Yasuda, H. ; Ylinen, T. ; Zensus, J. A. ; Ziegler, M. ; Angelakis, E. ; Hovatta, T. ; Hoversten, E. ; Ikejiri, Y. ; Kawabata, K. S. ; Kovalev, Y. Y. ; Kovalev, Yu A. ; Krichbaum, T. P. ; Lister, M. L. ; Lähteenmäki, A. ; Marchili, N. ; Ogle, P. ; Pagani, C. ; Pushkarev, A. B. ; Sakimoto, K. ; Sasada, M. ; Tornikoski, M. ; Uemura, M. ; Yamanaka, M. ; Yamashita, T. / PKS 1502+106 : A new and distant gamma-ray blazar in outburst discovered by the fermi large area telescope. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2010 ; Vol. 710, No. 1. pp. 810-827.
    @article{9cbb41d5a8b6445f909bdfa7d86027fb,
    title = "PKS 1502+106: A new and distant gamma-ray blazar in outburst discovered by the fermi large area telescope",
    abstract = "The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope discovered a rapid (5 days duration), high-energy (E > 100 MeV) gamma-ray outburst from a source identified with the blazar PKS 1502+106 (OR 103, S3 1502+10, z = 1.839) starting on 2008 August 5 (23 UTC, MJD 54683.95), and followed by bright and variable flux over the next few months. Results on the gamma-ray localization and identification, as well as spectral and temporal behavior during the first months of the Fermi all-sky survey, are reported here in conjunction with a multiwaveband characterization as a result of one of the first Fermi multifrequency campaigns. The campaign included a Swift ToO (followed up by a 16 day observation on August 7-22, MJD 54685-54700), VLBA (within the MOJAVE program), Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) 40 m, Effelsberg-100 m, Mets{\"a}hovi-14 m, RATAN-600, and Kanata-Hiroshima radio/optical observations. Results from the analysis of archival observations by INTEGRAL, XMM-Newton, and Spitzer space telescopes are reported for a more complete picture of this new gamma-ray blazar. PKS 1502+106 is a sub-GeV peaked, powerful flat spectrum radio quasar (luminosity at E > 100 MeV, L γ, is about 1.1 × 1049 erg s-1, and black hole mass likely close to 109 M ), exhibiting marked gamma-ray bolometric dominance, in particular during the asymmetric outburst (L γ/L opt 100, and 5 day averaged flux F E > 100 MeV = 2.91 1.4 × 10-6 ph cm-2 s-1), which was characterized by a factor greater than 3 of flux increase in less than 12 hr. The outburst was observed simultaneously from optical to X-ray bands (F 0.3 - 10 keV = 2.18+0.15 -0.12 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1, and hard photon index 1.5, similar to past values) with a flux increase of less than 1 order of magnitude with respect to past observations, and was likely controlled by Comptonization of external-jet photons produced in the broad-line region (BLR) in the gamma-ray band. No evidence of a possible blue bump signature was observed in the optical-UV continuum spectrum, while some hints for a possible 4 day time lag with respect to the gamma-ray flare were found. Nonetheless, the properties of PKS 1502+106 and the strict optical/UV, X-, and gamma-ray cross-correlations suggest the contribution of the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC), in-jet, process should dominate from radio to X-rays. This mechanism may also be responsible for the consistent gamma-ray variability observed by the LAT on longer timescales, after the ignition of activity at these energies provided by the BLR-dissipated outburst. Modulations and subsequent minor, rapid flare events were detected, with a general fluctuation mode between pink-noise and a random-walk. The averaged gamma-ray spectrum showed a deviation from a simple power law, and can be described by a log-parabola curved model peaking around 0.4-0.5 GeV. The maximum energy of photons detected from the source in the first four months of LAT observations was 15.8 GeV, with no significant consequences on extragalactic background light predictions. A possible radio counterpart of the gamma-ray outburst can be assumed only if a delay of more than three months is considered on the basis of opacity effects at cm and longer wavelengths. The rotation of the electric vector position angle observed by VLBA from 2007 to 2008 could represent a slow field ordering and alignment with respect to the jet axis, likely a precursor feature of the ejection of a superluminal radio knot and the high-energy outburst. This observing campaign provides more insight into the connection between MeV-GeV flares and the moving, polarized structures observed by the VLBI.",
    keywords = "Galaxies: active, Galaxies: jets, Gamma rays: general, Quasars: general, X-rays: galaxies",
    author = "E. Angelakis and Abdo, {A. A.} and M. Ackermann and M. Ajello and Atwood, {W. B.} and M. Axelsson and L. Baldini and J. Ballet and G. Barbiellini and D. Bastieri and Baughman, {B. M.} and K. Bechtol and R. Bellazzini and B. Berenji and Bloom, {E. D.} and G. Bogaert and E. Bonamente and Borgland, {A. W.} and J. Bregeon and A. Brez and M. Brigida and P. Bruel and Burnett, {T. H.} and Caliandro, {G. A.} and Cameron, {R. A.} and Caraveo, {P. A.} and Casandjian, {J. M.} and E. Cavazzuti and C. Cecchi and {\"O} {\cC}elik and A. Chekhtman and Cheung, {C. C.} and J. Chiang and S. Ciprini and R. Claus and J. Cohen-Tanugi and J. Conrad and S. Cutini and Dermer, {C. D.} and {De Angelis}, A. and {De Palma}, F. and Digel, {S. W.} and {Do Couto E Silva}, E. and Drell, {P. S.} and R. Dubois and D. Dumora and C. Farnier and C. Favuzzi and Fegan, {S. J.} and Ferrara, {E. C.} and Focke, {W. B.} and M. Frailis and L. Fuhrmann and Y. Fukazawa and S. Funk and P. Fusco and F. Gargano and D. Gasparrini and N. Gehrels and S. Germani and B. Giebels and N. Giglietto and F. Giordano and M. Giroletti and T. Glanzman and G. Godfrey and Grenier, {I. A.} and Grondin, {M. H.} and Grove, {J. E.} and L. Guillemot and S. Guiriec and Y. Hanabata and Harding, {A. K.} and M. Hayashida and E. Hays and Hughes, {R. E.} and G. J{\'o}hannesson and Johnson, {A. S.} and Johnson, {R. P.} and Johnson, {W. N.} and M. Kadler and T. Kamae and H. Katagiri and Jun Kataoka and M. Kerr and J. Kn{\"o}dlseder and Kocian, {M. L.} and F. Kuehn and M. Kuss and J. Lande and L. Latronico and M. Lemoine-Goumard and F. Longo and F. Loparco and B. Lott and Lovellette, {M. N.} and P. Lubrano and Madejski, {G. M.} and A. Makeev and M. Marelli and E. Massaro and W. Max-Moerbeck and Mazziotta, {M. N.} and W. McConville and McEnery, {J. E.} and C. Meurer and Michelson, {P. F.} and W. Mitthumsiri and T. Mizuno and Moiseev, {A. A.} and C. Monte and Monzani, {M. E.} and A. Morselli and Moskalenko, {I. V.} and S. Murgia and Nolan, {P. L.} and Norris, {J. P.} and E. Nuss and T. Ohsugi and N. Omodei and E. Orlando and Ormes, {J. F.} and M. Ozaki and D. Paneque and Panetta, {J. H.} and D. Parent and V. Pavlidou and Pearson, {T. J.} and V. Pelassa and M. Pepe and M. Pesce-Rollins and F. Piron and Porter, {T. A.} and S. Rain{\`o} and R. Rando and M. Razzano and S. Razzaque and A. Readhead and A. Reimer and O. Reimer and T. Reposeur and Richards, {J. L.} and S. Ritz and Rochester, {L. S.} and Rodriguez, {A. Y.} and Romani, {R. W.} and M. Roth and F. Ryde and Sadrozinski, {H. F W} and D. Sanchez and A. Sander and Parkinson, {P. M Saz} and Scargle, {J. D.} and C. Sgr{\`o} and Shaw, {M. S.} and Siskind, {E. J.} and Smith, {D. A.} and Smith, {P. D.} and G. Spandre and P. Spinelli and M. Stevenson and Strickman, {M. S.} and Suson, {D. J.} and H. Tajima and H. Takahashi and T. Tanaka and Thayer, {J. B.} and Thayer, {J. G.} and Thompson, {D. J.} and L. Tibaldo and O. Tibolla and Torres, {D. F.} and G. Tosti and A. Tramacere and P. Ubertini and Y. Uchiyama and Usher, {T. L.} and V. Vasileiou and N. Vilchez and V. Vitale and Waite, {A. P.} and P. Wang and Winer, {B. L.} and Wood, {K. S.} and H. Yasuda and T. Ylinen and Zensus, {J. A.} and M. Ziegler and E. Angelakis and T. Hovatta and E. Hoversten and Y. Ikejiri and Kawabata, {K. S.} and Kovalev, {Y. Y.} and Kovalev, {Yu A.} and Krichbaum, {T. P.} and Lister, {M. L.} and A. L{\"a}hteenm{\"a}ki and N. Marchili and P. Ogle and C. Pagani and Pushkarev, {A. B.} and K. Sakimoto and M. Sasada and M. Tornikoski and M. Uemura and M. Yamanaka and T. Yamashita",
    year = "2010",
    doi = "10.1088/0004-637X/710/1/810",
    language = "English",
    volume = "710",
    pages = "810--827",
    journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
    issn = "0004-637X",
    publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
    number = "1",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - PKS 1502+106

    T2 - A new and distant gamma-ray blazar in outburst discovered by the fermi large area telescope

    AU - Angelakis, E.

    AU - Abdo, A. A.

    AU - Ackermann, M.

    AU - Ajello, M.

    AU - Atwood, W. B.

    AU - Axelsson, M.

    AU - Baldini, L.

    AU - Ballet, J.

    AU - Barbiellini, G.

    AU - Bastieri, D.

    AU - Baughman, B. M.

    AU - Bechtol, K.

    AU - Bellazzini, R.

    AU - Berenji, B.

    AU - Bloom, E. D.

    AU - Bogaert, G.

    AU - Bonamente, E.

    AU - Borgland, A. W.

    AU - Bregeon, J.

    AU - Brez, A.

    AU - Brigida, M.

    AU - Bruel, P.

    AU - Burnett, T. H.

    AU - Caliandro, G. A.

    AU - Cameron, R. A.

    AU - Caraveo, P. A.

    AU - Casandjian, J. M.

    AU - Cavazzuti, E.

    AU - Cecchi, C.

    AU - Çelik, Ö

    AU - Chekhtman, A.

    AU - Cheung, C. C.

    AU - Chiang, J.

    AU - Ciprini, S.

    AU - Claus, R.

    AU - Cohen-Tanugi, J.

    AU - Conrad, J.

    AU - Cutini, S.

    AU - Dermer, C. D.

    AU - De Angelis, A.

    AU - De Palma, F.

    AU - Digel, S. W.

    AU - Do Couto E Silva, E.

    AU - Drell, P. S.

    AU - Dubois, R.

    AU - Dumora, D.

    AU - Farnier, C.

    AU - Favuzzi, C.

    AU - Fegan, S. J.

    AU - Ferrara, E. C.

    AU - Focke, W. B.

    AU - Frailis, M.

    AU - Fuhrmann, L.

    AU - Fukazawa, Y.

    AU - Funk, S.

    AU - Fusco, P.

    AU - Gargano, F.

    AU - Gasparrini, D.

    AU - Gehrels, N.

    AU - Germani, S.

    AU - Giebels, B.

    AU - Giglietto, N.

    AU - Giordano, F.

    AU - Giroletti, M.

    AU - Glanzman, T.

    AU - Godfrey, G.

    AU - Grenier, I. A.

    AU - Grondin, M. H.

    AU - Grove, J. E.

    AU - Guillemot, L.

    AU - Guiriec, S.

    AU - Hanabata, Y.

    AU - Harding, A. K.

    AU - Hayashida, M.

    AU - Hays, E.

    AU - Hughes, R. E.

    AU - Jóhannesson, G.

    AU - Johnson, A. S.

    AU - Johnson, R. P.

    AU - Johnson, W. N.

    AU - Kadler, M.

    AU - Kamae, T.

    AU - Katagiri, H.

    AU - Kataoka, Jun

    AU - Kerr, M.

    AU - Knödlseder, J.

    AU - Kocian, M. L.

    AU - Kuehn, F.

    AU - Kuss, M.

    AU - Lande, J.

    AU - Latronico, L.

    AU - Lemoine-Goumard, M.

    AU - Longo, F.

    AU - Loparco, F.

    AU - Lott, B.

    AU - Lovellette, M. N.

    AU - Lubrano, P.

    AU - Madejski, G. M.

    AU - Makeev, A.

    AU - Marelli, M.

    AU - Massaro, E.

    AU - Max-Moerbeck, W.

    AU - Mazziotta, M. N.

    AU - McConville, W.

    AU - McEnery, J. E.

    AU - Meurer, C.

    AU - Michelson, P. F.

    AU - Mitthumsiri, W.

    AU - Mizuno, T.

    AU - Moiseev, A. A.

    AU - Monte, C.

    AU - Monzani, M. E.

    AU - Morselli, A.

    AU - Moskalenko, I. V.

    AU - Murgia, S.

    AU - Nolan, P. L.

    AU - Norris, J. P.

    AU - Nuss, E.

    AU - Ohsugi, T.

    AU - Omodei, N.

    AU - Orlando, E.

    AU - Ormes, J. F.

    AU - Ozaki, M.

    AU - Paneque, D.

    AU - Panetta, J. H.

    AU - Parent, D.

    AU - Pavlidou, V.

    AU - Pearson, T. J.

    AU - Pelassa, V.

    AU - Pepe, M.

    AU - Pesce-Rollins, M.

    AU - Piron, F.

    AU - Porter, T. A.

    AU - Rainò, S.

    AU - Rando, R.

    AU - Razzano, M.

    AU - Razzaque, S.

    AU - Readhead, A.

    AU - Reimer, A.

    AU - Reimer, O.

    AU - Reposeur, T.

    AU - Richards, J. L.

    AU - Ritz, S.

    AU - Rochester, L. S.

    AU - Rodriguez, A. Y.

    AU - Romani, R. W.

    AU - Roth, M.

    AU - Ryde, F.

    AU - Sadrozinski, H. F W

    AU - Sanchez, D.

    AU - Sander, A.

    AU - Parkinson, P. M Saz

    AU - Scargle, J. D.

    AU - Sgrò, C.

    AU - Shaw, M. S.

    AU - Siskind, E. J.

    AU - Smith, D. A.

    AU - Smith, P. D.

    AU - Spandre, G.

    AU - Spinelli, P.

    AU - Stevenson, M.

    AU - Strickman, M. S.

    AU - Suson, D. J.

    AU - Tajima, H.

    AU - Takahashi, H.

    AU - Tanaka, T.

    AU - Thayer, J. B.

    AU - Thayer, J. G.

    AU - Thompson, D. J.

    AU - Tibaldo, L.

    AU - Tibolla, O.

    AU - Torres, D. F.

    AU - Tosti, G.

    AU - Tramacere, A.

    AU - Ubertini, P.

    AU - Uchiyama, Y.

    AU - Usher, T. L.

    AU - Vasileiou, V.

    AU - Vilchez, N.

    AU - Vitale, V.

    AU - Waite, A. P.

    AU - Wang, P.

    AU - Winer, B. L.

    AU - Wood, K. S.

    AU - Yasuda, H.

    AU - Ylinen, T.

    AU - Zensus, J. A.

    AU - Ziegler, M.

    AU - Angelakis, E.

    AU - Hovatta, T.

    AU - Hoversten, E.

    AU - Ikejiri, Y.

    AU - Kawabata, K. S.

    AU - Kovalev, Y. Y.

    AU - Kovalev, Yu A.

    AU - Krichbaum, T. P.

    AU - Lister, M. L.

    AU - Lähteenmäki, A.

    AU - Marchili, N.

    AU - Ogle, P.

    AU - Pagani, C.

    AU - Pushkarev, A. B.

    AU - Sakimoto, K.

    AU - Sasada, M.

    AU - Tornikoski, M.

    AU - Uemura, M.

    AU - Yamanaka, M.

    AU - Yamashita, T.

    PY - 2010

    Y1 - 2010

    N2 - The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope discovered a rapid (5 days duration), high-energy (E > 100 MeV) gamma-ray outburst from a source identified with the blazar PKS 1502+106 (OR 103, S3 1502+10, z = 1.839) starting on 2008 August 5 (23 UTC, MJD 54683.95), and followed by bright and variable flux over the next few months. Results on the gamma-ray localization and identification, as well as spectral and temporal behavior during the first months of the Fermi all-sky survey, are reported here in conjunction with a multiwaveband characterization as a result of one of the first Fermi multifrequency campaigns. The campaign included a Swift ToO (followed up by a 16 day observation on August 7-22, MJD 54685-54700), VLBA (within the MOJAVE program), Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) 40 m, Effelsberg-100 m, Metsähovi-14 m, RATAN-600, and Kanata-Hiroshima radio/optical observations. Results from the analysis of archival observations by INTEGRAL, XMM-Newton, and Spitzer space telescopes are reported for a more complete picture of this new gamma-ray blazar. PKS 1502+106 is a sub-GeV peaked, powerful flat spectrum radio quasar (luminosity at E > 100 MeV, L γ, is about 1.1 × 1049 erg s-1, and black hole mass likely close to 109 M ), exhibiting marked gamma-ray bolometric dominance, in particular during the asymmetric outburst (L γ/L opt 100, and 5 day averaged flux F E > 100 MeV = 2.91 1.4 × 10-6 ph cm-2 s-1), which was characterized by a factor greater than 3 of flux increase in less than 12 hr. The outburst was observed simultaneously from optical to X-ray bands (F 0.3 - 10 keV = 2.18+0.15 -0.12 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1, and hard photon index 1.5, similar to past values) with a flux increase of less than 1 order of magnitude with respect to past observations, and was likely controlled by Comptonization of external-jet photons produced in the broad-line region (BLR) in the gamma-ray band. No evidence of a possible blue bump signature was observed in the optical-UV continuum spectrum, while some hints for a possible 4 day time lag with respect to the gamma-ray flare were found. Nonetheless, the properties of PKS 1502+106 and the strict optical/UV, X-, and gamma-ray cross-correlations suggest the contribution of the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC), in-jet, process should dominate from radio to X-rays. This mechanism may also be responsible for the consistent gamma-ray variability observed by the LAT on longer timescales, after the ignition of activity at these energies provided by the BLR-dissipated outburst. Modulations and subsequent minor, rapid flare events were detected, with a general fluctuation mode between pink-noise and a random-walk. The averaged gamma-ray spectrum showed a deviation from a simple power law, and can be described by a log-parabola curved model peaking around 0.4-0.5 GeV. The maximum energy of photons detected from the source in the first four months of LAT observations was 15.8 GeV, with no significant consequences on extragalactic background light predictions. A possible radio counterpart of the gamma-ray outburst can be assumed only if a delay of more than three months is considered on the basis of opacity effects at cm and longer wavelengths. The rotation of the electric vector position angle observed by VLBA from 2007 to 2008 could represent a slow field ordering and alignment with respect to the jet axis, likely a precursor feature of the ejection of a superluminal radio knot and the high-energy outburst. This observing campaign provides more insight into the connection between MeV-GeV flares and the moving, polarized structures observed by the VLBI.

    AB - The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope discovered a rapid (5 days duration), high-energy (E > 100 MeV) gamma-ray outburst from a source identified with the blazar PKS 1502+106 (OR 103, S3 1502+10, z = 1.839) starting on 2008 August 5 (23 UTC, MJD 54683.95), and followed by bright and variable flux over the next few months. Results on the gamma-ray localization and identification, as well as spectral and temporal behavior during the first months of the Fermi all-sky survey, are reported here in conjunction with a multiwaveband characterization as a result of one of the first Fermi multifrequency campaigns. The campaign included a Swift ToO (followed up by a 16 day observation on August 7-22, MJD 54685-54700), VLBA (within the MOJAVE program), Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) 40 m, Effelsberg-100 m, Metsähovi-14 m, RATAN-600, and Kanata-Hiroshima radio/optical observations. Results from the analysis of archival observations by INTEGRAL, XMM-Newton, and Spitzer space telescopes are reported for a more complete picture of this new gamma-ray blazar. PKS 1502+106 is a sub-GeV peaked, powerful flat spectrum radio quasar (luminosity at E > 100 MeV, L γ, is about 1.1 × 1049 erg s-1, and black hole mass likely close to 109 M ), exhibiting marked gamma-ray bolometric dominance, in particular during the asymmetric outburst (L γ/L opt 100, and 5 day averaged flux F E > 100 MeV = 2.91 1.4 × 10-6 ph cm-2 s-1), which was characterized by a factor greater than 3 of flux increase in less than 12 hr. The outburst was observed simultaneously from optical to X-ray bands (F 0.3 - 10 keV = 2.18+0.15 -0.12 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1, and hard photon index 1.5, similar to past values) with a flux increase of less than 1 order of magnitude with respect to past observations, and was likely controlled by Comptonization of external-jet photons produced in the broad-line region (BLR) in the gamma-ray band. No evidence of a possible blue bump signature was observed in the optical-UV continuum spectrum, while some hints for a possible 4 day time lag with respect to the gamma-ray flare were found. Nonetheless, the properties of PKS 1502+106 and the strict optical/UV, X-, and gamma-ray cross-correlations suggest the contribution of the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC), in-jet, process should dominate from radio to X-rays. This mechanism may also be responsible for the consistent gamma-ray variability observed by the LAT on longer timescales, after the ignition of activity at these energies provided by the BLR-dissipated outburst. Modulations and subsequent minor, rapid flare events were detected, with a general fluctuation mode between pink-noise and a random-walk. The averaged gamma-ray spectrum showed a deviation from a simple power law, and can be described by a log-parabola curved model peaking around 0.4-0.5 GeV. The maximum energy of photons detected from the source in the first four months of LAT observations was 15.8 GeV, with no significant consequences on extragalactic background light predictions. A possible radio counterpart of the gamma-ray outburst can be assumed only if a delay of more than three months is considered on the basis of opacity effects at cm and longer wavelengths. The rotation of the electric vector position angle observed by VLBA from 2007 to 2008 could represent a slow field ordering and alignment with respect to the jet axis, likely a precursor feature of the ejection of a superluminal radio knot and the high-energy outburst. This observing campaign provides more insight into the connection between MeV-GeV flares and the moving, polarized structures observed by the VLBI.

    KW - Galaxies: active

    KW - Galaxies: jets

    KW - Gamma rays: general

    KW - Quasars: general

    KW - X-rays: galaxies

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=76949104429&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=76949104429&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1088/0004-637X/710/1/810

    DO - 10.1088/0004-637X/710/1/810

    M3 - Article

    VL - 710

    SP - 810

    EP - 827

    JO - Astrophysical Journal

    JF - Astrophysical Journal

    SN - 0004-637X

    IS - 1

    ER -