Poly(ether ester) Ionomers as Water-Soluble Polymers for Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing Processes

Allison M. Pekkanen, Callie Zawaski, André T. Stevenson, Ross Dickerman, Abby R. Whittington, Christopher B. Williams, Timothy Edward Long

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Water-soluble polymers as sacrificial supports for additive manufacturing (AM) facilitate complex features in printed objects. Few water-soluble polymers beyond poly(vinyl alcohol) enable material extrusion AM. In this work, charged poly(ether ester)s with tailored rheological and mechanical properties serve as novel materials for extrusion-based AM at low temperatures. Melt transesterification of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, 8k) and dimethyl 5-sulfoisophthalate afforded poly(ether ester)s of sufficient molecular weight to impart mechanical integrity. Quantitative ion exchange provided a library of poly(ether ester)s with varying counterions, including both monovalent and divalent cations. Dynamic mechanical and tensile analysis revealed an insignificant difference in mechanical properties for these polymers below the melting temperature, suggesting an insignificant change in final part properties. Rheological analysis, however, revealed the advantageous effect of divalent countercations (Ca2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+) in the melt state and exhibited an increase in viscosity of two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, time-temperature superposition identified an elevation in modulus, melt viscosity, and flow activation energy, suggesting intramolecular interactions between polymer chains and a higher apparent molecular weight. In particular, extrusion of poly(PEG8k-co-CaSIP) revealed vast opportunities for extrusion AM of well-defined parts. The unique melt rheological properties highlighted these poly(ether ester) ionomers as ideal candidates for low-temperature material extrusion additive manufacturing of water-soluble parts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12324-12331
Number of pages8
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Volume9
Issue number14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Apr 12
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

3D printers
Ionomers
Ether
Extrusion
Ethers
Esters
Polymers
Water
Polyethylene glycols
Molecular weight
Viscosity
Monovalent Cations
Mechanical properties
Transesterification
Divalent Cations
Temperature
Melting point
Ion exchange
Alcohols
Activation energy

Keywords

  • additive manufacturing
  • counterion
  • ionomers
  • material extrusion
  • poly(ethylene glycol)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

Pekkanen, A. M., Zawaski, C., Stevenson, A. T., Dickerman, R., Whittington, A. R., Williams, C. B., & Long, T. E. (2017). Poly(ether ester) Ionomers as Water-Soluble Polymers for Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing Processes. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 9(14), 12324-12331. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b01777

Poly(ether ester) Ionomers as Water-Soluble Polymers for Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing Processes. / Pekkanen, Allison M.; Zawaski, Callie; Stevenson, André T.; Dickerman, Ross; Whittington, Abby R.; Williams, Christopher B.; Long, Timothy Edward.

In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, Vol. 9, No. 14, 12.04.2017, p. 12324-12331.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pekkanen, AM, Zawaski, C, Stevenson, AT, Dickerman, R, Whittington, AR, Williams, CB & Long, TE 2017, 'Poly(ether ester) Ionomers as Water-Soluble Polymers for Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing Processes', ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 9, no. 14, pp. 12324-12331. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b01777
Pekkanen, Allison M. ; Zawaski, Callie ; Stevenson, André T. ; Dickerman, Ross ; Whittington, Abby R. ; Williams, Christopher B. ; Long, Timothy Edward. / Poly(ether ester) Ionomers as Water-Soluble Polymers for Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing Processes. In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. 2017 ; Vol. 9, No. 14. pp. 12324-12331.
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