### Abstract

The aim of this study was to develop a method to predict fluid forces acting on the human hand in unsteady flow swimming conditions. A mechanical system consisting of a pulley and chain mechanism and load cell was constructed to rotate a hand model in fluid flows. To measure the angular displacement of the hand model a potentiometer was attached to the axis of the rotation. The hand model was then fixed at various angles about the longitudinal axis of the hand model and rotated at different flow velocities in a swimming flume for 258 different trials to approximate a swimmer's stroke in unsteady flow conditions. Pressures were taken from 12 transducers embedded in the hand model at a sampling frequency of 200 Hz. The resultant fluid force acting on the hand model was then determined on the basis of the kinetic and kinematic data taken from the mechanical system at the frequency of 200 Hz. A stepwise regression analysis was applied to acquire higher order polynomial equations that predict the fluid force acting on the accelerating hand model from the 12 pressure values. The root mean square (RMS) difference between the resultant fluid force measured and that predicted from the single best-fit polynomial equation across all trials was 5 N. The method developed in the present study accurately predicted the fluid forces acting on the hand model.

Original language | English |
---|---|

Pages (from-to) | 1131-1136 |

Number of pages | 6 |

Journal | Journal of Biomechanics |

Volume | 41 |

Issue number | 5 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2008 |

Externally published | Yes |

### Fingerprint

### Keywords

- Acceleration
- Dynamic pressure
- Regression analysis
- Swimming

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

### Cite this

*Journal of Biomechanics*,

*41*(5), 1131-1136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2007.12.007

**Prediction of fluid forces acting on a hand model in unsteady flow conditions.** / Kudo, Shigetada; Yanai, Toshimasa; Wilson, Barry; Takagi, Hideki; Vennell, Ross.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

*Journal of Biomechanics*, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1131-1136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2007.12.007

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Prediction of fluid forces acting on a hand model in unsteady flow conditions

AU - Kudo, Shigetada

AU - Yanai, Toshimasa

AU - Wilson, Barry

AU - Takagi, Hideki

AU - Vennell, Ross

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - The aim of this study was to develop a method to predict fluid forces acting on the human hand in unsteady flow swimming conditions. A mechanical system consisting of a pulley and chain mechanism and load cell was constructed to rotate a hand model in fluid flows. To measure the angular displacement of the hand model a potentiometer was attached to the axis of the rotation. The hand model was then fixed at various angles about the longitudinal axis of the hand model and rotated at different flow velocities in a swimming flume for 258 different trials to approximate a swimmer's stroke in unsteady flow conditions. Pressures were taken from 12 transducers embedded in the hand model at a sampling frequency of 200 Hz. The resultant fluid force acting on the hand model was then determined on the basis of the kinetic and kinematic data taken from the mechanical system at the frequency of 200 Hz. A stepwise regression analysis was applied to acquire higher order polynomial equations that predict the fluid force acting on the accelerating hand model from the 12 pressure values. The root mean square (RMS) difference between the resultant fluid force measured and that predicted from the single best-fit polynomial equation across all trials was 5 N. The method developed in the present study accurately predicted the fluid forces acting on the hand model.

AB - The aim of this study was to develop a method to predict fluid forces acting on the human hand in unsteady flow swimming conditions. A mechanical system consisting of a pulley and chain mechanism and load cell was constructed to rotate a hand model in fluid flows. To measure the angular displacement of the hand model a potentiometer was attached to the axis of the rotation. The hand model was then fixed at various angles about the longitudinal axis of the hand model and rotated at different flow velocities in a swimming flume for 258 different trials to approximate a swimmer's stroke in unsteady flow conditions. Pressures were taken from 12 transducers embedded in the hand model at a sampling frequency of 200 Hz. The resultant fluid force acting on the hand model was then determined on the basis of the kinetic and kinematic data taken from the mechanical system at the frequency of 200 Hz. A stepwise regression analysis was applied to acquire higher order polynomial equations that predict the fluid force acting on the accelerating hand model from the 12 pressure values. The root mean square (RMS) difference between the resultant fluid force measured and that predicted from the single best-fit polynomial equation across all trials was 5 N. The method developed in the present study accurately predicted the fluid forces acting on the hand model.

KW - Acceleration

KW - Dynamic pressure

KW - Regression analysis

KW - Swimming

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=40249114719&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=40249114719&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2007.12.007

DO - 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2007.12.007

M3 - Article

C2 - 18243218

AN - SCOPUS:40249114719

VL - 41

SP - 1131

EP - 1136

JO - Journal of Biomechanics

JF - Journal of Biomechanics

SN - 0021-9290

IS - 5

ER -