Prediction of maximal oxygen uptake from a 3-minute walk based on gender, age, and body composition

Zhen Bo Cao*, Nobuyuki Miyatake, Tomoko Aoyama, Mitsuru Higuchi, Izumi Tabata

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The purpose was to develop new maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max) prediction models using a perceptually regulated 3-minute walk test. Methods: VO2max was measured with a maximal incremental cycle test in 283 Japanese adults. A 3-minute walk test was conducted at a self-regulated intensity corresponding to ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) 13. Results: A 3-minute walk distance (3MWD) was significantly related to VO2max (r = .60, P < .001). Three prediction models were developed by multiple regression to estimate VO2max using data on gender, age, 3MWD, and either BMI [BMI model, multiple correlation coefficients (R) = .78, standard error of estimate (SEE) = 5.26 ml·kg -1·min-1], waist circumference (WC model, R = .80, SEE = 5.04 ml·kg-1·min-1), or body fat percentage (%Fat model, R = .84, SEE = 4.57 ml·kg -1·min-1), suggesting that the %Fat model is the best model [VO2max = 37.501 + 0.463 × Gender (0 = women, 1 = men) - 0.195 × Age - 0.589 × %Fat + 0.053 × 3MWD]. Cross-validation by using the predicted residual sum of squares (PRESS) procedures demonstrated a high level of cross-validity of all prediction models. Conclusions: The new VO2max prediction models are reasonably applicable to estimating VO2max in Japanese adults and represent a quick, low-risk, and convenient means for estimating VO2max in the field.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)280-287
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Physical Activity and Health
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Feb


  • Cardiorespiratory fitness
  • Field test
  • Prediction model
  • Ratings of perceived exertion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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