Background: No studies have evaluated whether administering intravenous lactated Ringer's (LR) solution to patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) improves their outcomes, to our knowledge. Therefore, we examined the association between prehospital use of LR solution and patients' return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), 1-month survival, and neurological or physical outcomes at 1 month after the event. Methods and Findings: We conducted a prospective, non-randomized, observational study using national data of all patients with OHCA from 2005 through 2009 in Japan. We performed a propensity analysis and examined the association between prehospital use of LR solution and short- and long-term survival. The study patients were ≥18 years of age, had an OHCA before arrival of EMS personnel, were treated by EMS personnel, and were then transported to hospitals. A total of 531,854 patients with OHCA met the inclusion criteria. Among propensity-matched patients, compared with those who did not receive pre-hospital intravenous fluids, prehospital use of LR solution was associated with an increased likelihood of ROSC before hospital arrival (odds ratio [OR] adjusted for all covariates [95% CI] = 1.239 [1.146-1.339] [p<0.001], but with a reduced likelihood of 1-month survival with minimal neurological or physical impairment (cerebral performance category 1 or 2, OR adjusted for all covariates [95% CI] = 0.764 [0.589-0.992] [p = 0.04]; and overall performance category 1 or 2, OR adjusted for all covariates [95% CI] = 0.746 [0.573-0.971] [p = 0.03]). There was no association between prehospital use of LR solution and 1-month survival (OR adjusted for all covariates [95% CI] = 0.960 [0.854-1.078]). Conclusion: In Japanese patients experiencing OHCA, the prehospital use of LR solution was independently associated with a decreased likelihood of a good functional outcome 1 month after the event, but with an increased likelihood of ROSC before hospital arrival. Prehospital use of LR solution was not associated with 1-month survival. Further study is necessary to verify these findings. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
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