Preparation of carbazole polymer thin films chemically bound to substrate surface by physical vapor deposition combined with self-assembled monolayer

Kiyoi Katsuki, Hiroshi Bekku, Akira Kawakami, Jason Locklin, Derek Patton, Kuniaki Tanaka, Rigoberto Advincula, Hiroaki Usui

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)


Vinyl polymer thin films having carbazole units were prepared by a new method combining physical vapor deposition and self-assembled monolayer (SAM) techniques. 3-(N-carbazolyl)propyl acrylate monomer was evaporated onto a gold substrate that had a VAZO 56 (DuPont) initiator attached as a SAM. The VAZO initiator was activated by irradiating ultraviolet light after depositing the monomer. Although the polymerization reaction can proceed even without the surface initiator, the SAM was effective in improving the surface smoothness, thermal stability, and film-substrate adhesion as a consequence of the formation of covalent chemical bonds between the film and the substrate. Thermal activation of the initiator was examined for the deposition polymerization of 9-H-carbazole-9-ethylmethacryrate. Substrate heating during the evaporation was not effective for accumulating thin films. On the other hand, performing postdeposition annealing on the film after deposition at room temperature resulted in the formation of a polymer thin film chemically bound to the substrate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)504-508
Number of pages5
JournalJapanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1: Regular Papers and Short Notes and Review Papers
Issue number1 B
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Jan
Externally publishedYes



  • Carbazole polymer
  • Deposition polymerization
  • Physical vapor deposition
  • Self-assembled monolayer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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