Prevalence and persistence of depression in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator: A 2-year longitudinal study

Tsuyoshi Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Shiga, Kazue Kuwahara, Sayaka Kobayashi, Shinichi Suzuki, Katsuji Nishimura, Atsushi Suzuki, Koichiro Ejima, Tetsuyuki Manaka, Morio Shoda, Jun Ishigooka, Hiroshi Kasanuki, Nobuhisa Hagiwara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


Background: It is unclear whether depression persists in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). We evaluated the prevalence and persistence of depression in ICD patients over a 2-year period. Methods: The study included 90 consecutively hospitalized patients. Patients underlying heart disease was 24% coronary artery disease, 29% idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, 24% hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 13% idiopathic VF/long QT syndrome and miscellaneous conditions 11%. A secondary indication for ICD implantation was present in 20 patients. All patients completed the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) at study baseline and at the their routine follow-up visit 2 years after the baseline questionnaire. Delivery of ICD therapies was tracked throughout the 2 years. Results: Depression, indicated by a Zung SDS index score exceeding 60, was present in 29 (32%) of patients at study baseline. Depression was present in 11/51 (21%) patients scheduled to undergo ICD implantation, 2/2 (100%) patients whose device was upgraded to a CRT-D, 3/14 (21%) patients who had undergone pulse generator replacement, 7/14 (50%) patients who experienced electrical storm and 6/9 (66%) patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure. NYHA functional class III was significantly associated with depression at baseline (HR 6.7, 95% CI 1.68-27.2, p = 0.0007). No differences were noted for female gender, demographics, β-blocker use, or LVEF ≤35% (p = ns). Depression was present in 25 (28%) of patients at 2 years follow-up, persisting in 21 (72%) of patients whose Zung SDS scores were elevated at baseline. The median time from ICD shock therapy to completion of the 2 year questionnaire was 9 months (range, 1-22). Patients who were depressed (9/25, 36%) experienced more shocks than non-depressed patients (6/65, 9%) after 2 years (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Depression is not uncommon among patients who meet criteria for ICD implantation and persists over time particularly when functional status is impaired. Depression is associated with a higher incidence shock therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1455-1461
Number of pages7
JournalPACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Dec 1


  • depression
  • implantable cardioverter defibrillator
  • shock

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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