Primary cosmic-ray energy spectrum around the knee energy region measured by the Tibet hybrid experiment

M. Amenomori, S. Ayabe, S. W. Cui, Danzengluobu, L. K. Ding, X. H. Ding, C. F. Feng, Z. Y. Feng, X. Y. Gao, Q. X. Geng, H. W. Guo, H. H. He, M. He, K. Hibino, N. Hotta, Haibing Hu, H. B. Hu, J. Huang, Q. Huang, H. Y. Jia & 59 others F. Kajino, K. Kasahara, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, K. Kawata, Labaciren, C. M. Le, J. Y. Li, H. Lu, S. L. Lu, X. R. Meng, K. Mizutani, J. Mu, K. Munakata, A. Nagai, H. Nanjo, M. Nishizawa, M. Ohnishi, I. Ohta, H. Onuma, T. Ouchi, Shunsuke Ozawa, J. R. Ren, T. Saito, M. Sakata, T. Sasaki, M. Shibata, A. Shiomi, T. Shirai, H. Sugimoto, M. Takita, Y. H. Tan, N. Tateyama, Shoji Torii, H. Tsuchiya, S. Udo, T. Utsugi, B. S. Wang, H. Wang, X. Wang, Y. G. Wang, H. R. Wu, L. Xue, Y. Yamamoto, C. T. Yan, X. C. Yang, S. Yasue, Z. H. Ye, G. C. Yu, A. F. Yuan, T. Yuda, H. M. Zhang, J. L. Zhang, N. J. Zhang, X. Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Yi Zhang, Zhaxisangzhu, X. X. Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Tibet hybrid experiment composed of emulsion chambers, burst detectors and the Tibet-II air-shower array was done at Yangbajing (4,300m above sea level, 606 g/cm2) in Tibet. For 3-year operation, we have observed 177 γ-families (Σ > 20 TeV) accompanying air showers with the shower size Ne > 2 × 105. Using this data set and a neural network method to select proton and helium induced events, the primary proton and helium energy spectra are deduced between 1015 and 1016eV. The proton spectrum, thus obtained, can be expressed by a single power-law function with a differential index of -3.01±0.11 and -3.05±0.12 based on the QGSJET+HD and SIBYLL+HD models, respectively, which are steeper than that extrapolated from the direct observations of -2.74±0.01 in the energy range below 1014 eV. Our result suggests that the main component responsible for making the knee structure of the all-particle spectrum should be composed of nuclei heavier than helium.

Original languageEnglish
Article number006
Pages (from-to)51-58
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Physics: Conference Series
Volume47
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Oct 1
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

primary cosmic rays
Tibet
energy spectra
helium
cosmic ray showers
protons
heavy nuclei
showers
proton energy
sea level
emulsions
energy
bursts
chambers
detectors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Amenomori, M., Ayabe, S., Cui, S. W., Danzengluobu, Ding, L. K., Ding, X. H., ... Zhou, X. X. (2006). Primary cosmic-ray energy spectrum around the knee energy region measured by the Tibet hybrid experiment. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 47(1), 51-58. [006]. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/47/1/006

Primary cosmic-ray energy spectrum around the knee energy region measured by the Tibet hybrid experiment. / Amenomori, M.; Ayabe, S.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Ding, X. H.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Guo, H. W.; He, H. H.; He, M.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Huang, Q.; Jia, H. Y.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Labaciren; Le, C. M.; Li, J. Y.; Lu, H.; Lu, S. L.; Meng, X. R.; Mizutani, K.; Mu, J.; Munakata, K.; Nagai, A.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Onuma, H.; Ouchi, T.; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Ren, J. R.; Saito, T.; Sakata, M.; Sasaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, Shoji; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Utsugi, T.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. G.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yan, C. T.; Yang, X. C.; Yasue, S.; Ye, Z. H.; Yu, G. C.; Yuan, A. F.; Yuda, T.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, N. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.

In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 47, No. 1, 006, 01.10.2006, p. 51-58.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Amenomori, M, Ayabe, S, Cui, SW, Danzengluobu, Ding, LK, Ding, XH, Feng, CF, Feng, ZY, Gao, XY, Geng, QX, Guo, HW, He, HH, He, M, Hibino, K, Hotta, N, Hu, H, Hu, HB, Huang, J, Huang, Q, Jia, HY, Kajino, F, Kasahara, K, Katayose, Y, Kato, C, Kawata, K, Labaciren, Le, CM, Li, JY, Lu, H, Lu, SL, Meng, XR, Mizutani, K, Mu, J, Munakata, K, Nagai, A, Nanjo, H, Nishizawa, M, Ohnishi, M, Ohta, I, Onuma, H, Ouchi, T, Ozawa, S, Ren, JR, Saito, T, Sakata, M, Sasaki, T, Shibata, M, Shiomi, A, Shirai, T, Sugimoto, H, Takita, M, Tan, YH, Tateyama, N, Torii, S, Tsuchiya, H, Udo, S, Utsugi, T, Wang, BS, Wang, H, Wang, X, Wang, YG, Wu, HR, Xue, L, Yamamoto, Y, Yan, CT, Yang, XC, Yasue, S, Ye, ZH, Yu, GC, Yuan, AF, Yuda, T, Zhang, HM, Zhang, JL, Zhang, NJ, Zhang, XY, Zhang, Y, Zhang, Y, Zhaxisangzhu & Zhou, XX 2006, 'Primary cosmic-ray energy spectrum around the knee energy region measured by the Tibet hybrid experiment', Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 47, no. 1, 006, pp. 51-58. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/47/1/006
Amenomori, M. ; Ayabe, S. ; Cui, S. W. ; Danzengluobu ; Ding, L. K. ; Ding, X. H. ; Feng, C. F. ; Feng, Z. Y. ; Gao, X. Y. ; Geng, Q. X. ; Guo, H. W. ; He, H. H. ; He, M. ; Hibino, K. ; Hotta, N. ; Hu, Haibing ; Hu, H. B. ; Huang, J. ; Huang, Q. ; Jia, H. Y. ; Kajino, F. ; Kasahara, K. ; Katayose, Y. ; Kato, C. ; Kawata, K. ; Labaciren ; Le, C. M. ; Li, J. Y. ; Lu, H. ; Lu, S. L. ; Meng, X. R. ; Mizutani, K. ; Mu, J. ; Munakata, K. ; Nagai, A. ; Nanjo, H. ; Nishizawa, M. ; Ohnishi, M. ; Ohta, I. ; Onuma, H. ; Ouchi, T. ; Ozawa, Shunsuke ; Ren, J. R. ; Saito, T. ; Sakata, M. ; Sasaki, T. ; Shibata, M. ; Shiomi, A. ; Shirai, T. ; Sugimoto, H. ; Takita, M. ; Tan, Y. H. ; Tateyama, N. ; Torii, Shoji ; Tsuchiya, H. ; Udo, S. ; Utsugi, T. ; Wang, B. S. ; Wang, H. ; Wang, X. ; Wang, Y. G. ; Wu, H. R. ; Xue, L. ; Yamamoto, Y. ; Yan, C. T. ; Yang, X. C. ; Yasue, S. ; Ye, Z. H. ; Yu, G. C. ; Yuan, A. F. ; Yuda, T. ; Zhang, H. M. ; Zhang, J. L. ; Zhang, N. J. ; Zhang, X. Y. ; Zhang, Y. ; Zhang, Yi ; Zhaxisangzhu ; Zhou, X. X. / Primary cosmic-ray energy spectrum around the knee energy region measured by the Tibet hybrid experiment. In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2006 ; Vol. 47, No. 1. pp. 51-58.
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T1 - Primary cosmic-ray energy spectrum around the knee energy region measured by the Tibet hybrid experiment

AU - Amenomori, M.

AU - Ayabe, S.

AU - Cui, S. W.

AU - Danzengluobu,

AU - Ding, L. K.

AU - Ding, X. H.

AU - Feng, C. F.

AU - Feng, Z. Y.

AU - Gao, X. Y.

AU - Geng, Q. X.

AU - Guo, H. W.

AU - He, H. H.

AU - He, M.

AU - Hibino, K.

AU - Hotta, N.

AU - Hu, Haibing

AU - Hu, H. B.

AU - Huang, J.

AU - Huang, Q.

AU - Jia, H. Y.

AU - Kajino, F.

AU - Kasahara, K.

AU - Katayose, Y.

AU - Kato, C.

AU - Kawata, K.

AU - Labaciren,

AU - Le, C. M.

AU - Li, J. Y.

AU - Lu, H.

AU - Lu, S. L.

AU - Meng, X. R.

AU - Mizutani, K.

AU - Mu, J.

AU - Munakata, K.

AU - Nagai, A.

AU - Nanjo, H.

AU - Nishizawa, M.

AU - Ohnishi, M.

AU - Ohta, I.

AU - Onuma, H.

AU - Ouchi, T.

AU - Ozawa, Shunsuke

AU - Ren, J. R.

AU - Saito, T.

AU - Sakata, M.

AU - Sasaki, T.

AU - Shibata, M.

AU - Shiomi, A.

AU - Shirai, T.

AU - Sugimoto, H.

AU - Takita, M.

AU - Tan, Y. H.

AU - Tateyama, N.

AU - Torii, Shoji

AU - Tsuchiya, H.

AU - Udo, S.

AU - Utsugi, T.

AU - Wang, B. S.

AU - Wang, H.

AU - Wang, X.

AU - Wang, Y. G.

AU - Wu, H. R.

AU - Xue, L.

AU - Yamamoto, Y.

AU - Yan, C. T.

AU - Yang, X. C.

AU - Yasue, S.

AU - Ye, Z. H.

AU - Yu, G. C.

AU - Yuan, A. F.

AU - Yuda, T.

AU - Zhang, H. M.

AU - Zhang, J. L.

AU - Zhang, N. J.

AU - Zhang, X. Y.

AU - Zhang, Y.

AU - Zhang, Yi

AU - Zhaxisangzhu,

AU - Zhou, X. X.

PY - 2006/10/1

Y1 - 2006/10/1

N2 - The Tibet hybrid experiment composed of emulsion chambers, burst detectors and the Tibet-II air-shower array was done at Yangbajing (4,300m above sea level, 606 g/cm2) in Tibet. For 3-year operation, we have observed 177 γ-families (ΣEγ > 20 TeV) accompanying air showers with the shower size Ne > 2 × 105. Using this data set and a neural network method to select proton and helium induced events, the primary proton and helium energy spectra are deduced between 1015 and 1016eV. The proton spectrum, thus obtained, can be expressed by a single power-law function with a differential index of -3.01±0.11 and -3.05±0.12 based on the QGSJET+HD and SIBYLL+HD models, respectively, which are steeper than that extrapolated from the direct observations of -2.74±0.01 in the energy range below 1014 eV. Our result suggests that the main component responsible for making the knee structure of the all-particle spectrum should be composed of nuclei heavier than helium.

AB - The Tibet hybrid experiment composed of emulsion chambers, burst detectors and the Tibet-II air-shower array was done at Yangbajing (4,300m above sea level, 606 g/cm2) in Tibet. For 3-year operation, we have observed 177 γ-families (ΣEγ > 20 TeV) accompanying air showers with the shower size Ne > 2 × 105. Using this data set and a neural network method to select proton and helium induced events, the primary proton and helium energy spectra are deduced between 1015 and 1016eV. The proton spectrum, thus obtained, can be expressed by a single power-law function with a differential index of -3.01±0.11 and -3.05±0.12 based on the QGSJET+HD and SIBYLL+HD models, respectively, which are steeper than that extrapolated from the direct observations of -2.74±0.01 in the energy range below 1014 eV. Our result suggests that the main component responsible for making the knee structure of the all-particle spectrum should be composed of nuclei heavier than helium.

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JO - Journal of Physics: Conference Series

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