Primary proton spectrum around the knee observed by the Tibet air-shower experiment

M. Amenomori, S. Ayabe, D. Chen, S. W. Cui, Danzengluobu, L. K. Ding, X. H. Ding, C. F. Feng, Z. Y. Feng, X. Y. Gao, Q. X. Geng, H. W. Guo, H. H. He, M. He, K. Hibino, N. Hotta, Haibing Hu, H. B. Hu, J. Huang, Q. Huang & 58 others H. Y. Jia, F. Kajino, K. Kasahara, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, K. Kawata, Labaciren, G. M. Le, J. Y. Li, H. Lu, S. L. Lu, X. R. Meng, K. Mizutani, J. Mu, K. Munakata, A. Nagai, H. Nanjo, M. Nishizawa, M. Ohnishi, I. Ohta, H. Onuma, T. Ouchi, Shunsuke Ozawa, J. R. Ren, T. Saito, M. Sakata, T. Sasaki, M. Shibata, A. Shiomi, T. Shirai, H. Sugimoto, M. Takita, Y. H. Tan, N. Tateyama, Shoji Torii, H. Tsuchiya, S. Udo, H. Wang, X. Wang, Y. G. Wang, H. R. Wu, L. Xue, Y. Yamamoto, C. T. Yan, X. C. Yang, S. Yasue, Z. H. Ye, G. C. Yu, A. F. Yuan, T. Yuda, H. M. Zhang, J. L. Zhang, N. J. Zhang, X. Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Yi Zhang, Zhaxisangzhu, X. X. Zhou

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    6 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Simultaneous observation of γ-families and their accompanying air showers was performed at Yangbajing (4300 m above sea level) in Tibet with the emulsion chambers and burst detectors which were linked with the Tibet-II air-shower array. For three years operation, we observed 177 γ-families (∑Eγ > 20 TeV) accompanying air showers with the size Ne > 2 × 105. Using this data and the simulation code CORSIKA, we obtained the primary proton spectrum in the energy range of 1015-1016 eV. The slope of the observed spectrum is steeper than that extrapolated smoothly from the lower energy region below 1014 eV, irrespective of the interaction models assumed in the simulation. The uncertainty of the absolute flux of protons due to the interaction model dependence involved in the simulation codes is at most 30%, which is much weaker than results of other air-shower experiments. Our experiment shows low intensity of light components (proton and helium) independent of the interaction models suggesting that the main component responsible for making the knee structure of the all-particle spectrum is composed of nuclei heavier than helium. This is the first measurement of the differential energy spectra of primary protons by selecting them event by event at the knee energy region.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1938-1943
    Number of pages6
    JournalAdvances in Space Research
    Volume37
    Issue number10
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2006

    Fingerprint

    Tibet
    cosmic ray showers
    Protons
    protons
    air
    Air
    helium
    Helium
    energy
    experiment
    Experiments
    simulation
    Sea level
    data simulation
    interactions
    heavy nuclei
    emulsion
    sea level
    emulsions
    Emulsions

    Keywords

    • γ-Family
    • Cosmic rays
    • Knee region
    • Neural network
    • Proton

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Space and Planetary Science
    • Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Cite this

    Amenomori, M., Ayabe, S., Chen, D., Cui, S. W., Danzengluobu, Ding, L. K., ... Zhou, X. X. (2006). Primary proton spectrum around the knee observed by the Tibet air-shower experiment. Advances in Space Research, 37(10), 1938-1943. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.11.018

    Primary proton spectrum around the knee observed by the Tibet air-shower experiment. / Amenomori, M.; Ayabe, S.; Chen, D.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Ding, X. H.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Guo, H. W.; He, H. H.; He, M.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Huang, Q.; Jia, H. Y.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Labaciren; Le, G. M.; Li, J. Y.; Lu, H.; Lu, S. L.; Meng, X. R.; Mizutani, K.; Mu, J.; Munakata, K.; Nagai, A.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Onuma, H.; Ouchi, T.; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Ren, J. R.; Saito, T.; Sakata, M.; Sasaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, Shoji; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. G.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yan, C. T.; Yang, X. C.; Yasue, S.; Ye, Z. H.; Yu, G. C.; Yuan, A. F.; Yuda, T.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, N. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.

    In: Advances in Space Research, Vol. 37, No. 10, 2006, p. 1938-1943.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Amenomori, M, Ayabe, S, Chen, D, Cui, SW, Danzengluobu, Ding, LK, Ding, XH, Feng, CF, Feng, ZY, Gao, XY, Geng, QX, Guo, HW, He, HH, He, M, Hibino, K, Hotta, N, Hu, H, Hu, HB, Huang, J, Huang, Q, Jia, HY, Kajino, F, Kasahara, K, Katayose, Y, Kato, C, Kawata, K, Labaciren, Le, GM, Li, JY, Lu, H, Lu, SL, Meng, XR, Mizutani, K, Mu, J, Munakata, K, Nagai, A, Nanjo, H, Nishizawa, M, Ohnishi, M, Ohta, I, Onuma, H, Ouchi, T, Ozawa, S, Ren, JR, Saito, T, Sakata, M, Sasaki, T, Shibata, M, Shiomi, A, Shirai, T, Sugimoto, H, Takita, M, Tan, YH, Tateyama, N, Torii, S, Tsuchiya, H, Udo, S, Wang, H, Wang, X, Wang, YG, Wu, HR, Xue, L, Yamamoto, Y, Yan, CT, Yang, XC, Yasue, S, Ye, ZH, Yu, GC, Yuan, AF, Yuda, T, Zhang, HM, Zhang, JL, Zhang, NJ, Zhang, XY, Zhang, Y, Zhang, Y, Zhaxisangzhu & Zhou, XX 2006, 'Primary proton spectrum around the knee observed by the Tibet air-shower experiment', Advances in Space Research, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 1938-1943. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.11.018
    Amenomori, M. ; Ayabe, S. ; Chen, D. ; Cui, S. W. ; Danzengluobu ; Ding, L. K. ; Ding, X. H. ; Feng, C. F. ; Feng, Z. Y. ; Gao, X. Y. ; Geng, Q. X. ; Guo, H. W. ; He, H. H. ; He, M. ; Hibino, K. ; Hotta, N. ; Hu, Haibing ; Hu, H. B. ; Huang, J. ; Huang, Q. ; Jia, H. Y. ; Kajino, F. ; Kasahara, K. ; Katayose, Y. ; Kato, C. ; Kawata, K. ; Labaciren ; Le, G. M. ; Li, J. Y. ; Lu, H. ; Lu, S. L. ; Meng, X. R. ; Mizutani, K. ; Mu, J. ; Munakata, K. ; Nagai, A. ; Nanjo, H. ; Nishizawa, M. ; Ohnishi, M. ; Ohta, I. ; Onuma, H. ; Ouchi, T. ; Ozawa, Shunsuke ; Ren, J. R. ; Saito, T. ; Sakata, M. ; Sasaki, T. ; Shibata, M. ; Shiomi, A. ; Shirai, T. ; Sugimoto, H. ; Takita, M. ; Tan, Y. H. ; Tateyama, N. ; Torii, Shoji ; Tsuchiya, H. ; Udo, S. ; Wang, H. ; Wang, X. ; Wang, Y. G. ; Wu, H. R. ; Xue, L. ; Yamamoto, Y. ; Yan, C. T. ; Yang, X. C. ; Yasue, S. ; Ye, Z. H. ; Yu, G. C. ; Yuan, A. F. ; Yuda, T. ; Zhang, H. M. ; Zhang, J. L. ; Zhang, N. J. ; Zhang, X. Y. ; Zhang, Y. ; Zhang, Yi ; Zhaxisangzhu ; Zhou, X. X. / Primary proton spectrum around the knee observed by the Tibet air-shower experiment. In: Advances in Space Research. 2006 ; Vol. 37, No. 10. pp. 1938-1943.
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    abstract = "Simultaneous observation of γ-families and their accompanying air showers was performed at Yangbajing (4300 m above sea level) in Tibet with the emulsion chambers and burst detectors which were linked with the Tibet-II air-shower array. For three years operation, we observed 177 γ-families (∑Eγ > 20 TeV) accompanying air showers with the size Ne > 2 × 105. Using this data and the simulation code CORSIKA, we obtained the primary proton spectrum in the energy range of 1015-1016 eV. The slope of the observed spectrum is steeper than that extrapolated smoothly from the lower energy region below 1014 eV, irrespective of the interaction models assumed in the simulation. The uncertainty of the absolute flux of protons due to the interaction model dependence involved in the simulation codes is at most 30{\%}, which is much weaker than results of other air-shower experiments. Our experiment shows low intensity of light components (proton and helium) independent of the interaction models suggesting that the main component responsible for making the knee structure of the all-particle spectrum is composed of nuclei heavier than helium. This is the first measurement of the differential energy spectra of primary protons by selecting them event by event at the knee energy region.",
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    author = "M. Amenomori and S. Ayabe and D. Chen and Cui, {S. W.} and Danzengluobu and Ding, {L. K.} and Ding, {X. H.} and Feng, {C. F.} and Feng, {Z. Y.} and Gao, {X. Y.} and Geng, {Q. X.} and Guo, {H. W.} and He, {H. H.} and M. He and K. Hibino and N. Hotta and Haibing Hu and Hu, {H. B.} and J. Huang and Q. Huang and Jia, {H. Y.} and F. Kajino and K. Kasahara and Y. Katayose and C. Kato and K. Kawata and Labaciren and Le, {G. M.} and Li, {J. Y.} and H. Lu and Lu, {S. L.} and Meng, {X. R.} and K. Mizutani and J. Mu and K. Munakata and A. Nagai and H. Nanjo and M. Nishizawa and M. Ohnishi and I. Ohta and H. Onuma and T. Ouchi and Shunsuke Ozawa and Ren, {J. R.} and T. Saito and M. Sakata and T. Sasaki and M. Shibata and A. Shiomi and T. Shirai and H. Sugimoto and M. Takita and Tan, {Y. H.} and N. Tateyama and Shoji Torii and H. Tsuchiya and S. Udo and H. Wang and X. Wang and Wang, {Y. G.} and Wu, {H. R.} and L. Xue and Y. Yamamoto and Yan, {C. T.} and Yang, {X. C.} and S. Yasue and Ye, {Z. H.} and Yu, {G. C.} and Yuan, {A. F.} and T. Yuda and Zhang, {H. M.} and Zhang, {J. L.} and Zhang, {N. J.} and Zhang, {X. Y.} and Y. Zhang and Yi Zhang and Zhaxisangzhu and Zhou, {X. X.}",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Primary proton spectrum around the knee observed by the Tibet air-shower experiment

    AU - Amenomori, M.

    AU - Ayabe, S.

    AU - Chen, D.

    AU - Cui, S. W.

    AU - Danzengluobu,

    AU - Ding, L. K.

    AU - Ding, X. H.

    AU - Feng, C. F.

    AU - Feng, Z. Y.

    AU - Gao, X. Y.

    AU - Geng, Q. X.

    AU - Guo, H. W.

    AU - He, H. H.

    AU - He, M.

    AU - Hibino, K.

    AU - Hotta, N.

    AU - Hu, Haibing

    AU - Hu, H. B.

    AU - Huang, J.

    AU - Huang, Q.

    AU - Jia, H. Y.

    AU - Kajino, F.

    AU - Kasahara, K.

    AU - Katayose, Y.

    AU - Kato, C.

    AU - Kawata, K.

    AU - Labaciren,

    AU - Le, G. M.

    AU - Li, J. Y.

    AU - Lu, H.

    AU - Lu, S. L.

    AU - Meng, X. R.

    AU - Mizutani, K.

    AU - Mu, J.

    AU - Munakata, K.

    AU - Nagai, A.

    AU - Nanjo, H.

    AU - Nishizawa, M.

    AU - Ohnishi, M.

    AU - Ohta, I.

    AU - Onuma, H.

    AU - Ouchi, T.

    AU - Ozawa, Shunsuke

    AU - Ren, J. R.

    AU - Saito, T.

    AU - Sakata, M.

    AU - Sasaki, T.

    AU - Shibata, M.

    AU - Shiomi, A.

    AU - Shirai, T.

    AU - Sugimoto, H.

    AU - Takita, M.

    AU - Tan, Y. H.

    AU - Tateyama, N.

    AU - Torii, Shoji

    AU - Tsuchiya, H.

    AU - Udo, S.

    AU - Wang, H.

    AU - Wang, X.

    AU - Wang, Y. G.

    AU - Wu, H. R.

    AU - Xue, L.

    AU - Yamamoto, Y.

    AU - Yan, C. T.

    AU - Yang, X. C.

    AU - Yasue, S.

    AU - Ye, Z. H.

    AU - Yu, G. C.

    AU - Yuan, A. F.

    AU - Yuda, T.

    AU - Zhang, H. M.

    AU - Zhang, J. L.

    AU - Zhang, N. J.

    AU - Zhang, X. Y.

    AU - Zhang, Y.

    AU - Zhang, Yi

    AU - Zhaxisangzhu,

    AU - Zhou, X. X.

    PY - 2006

    Y1 - 2006

    N2 - Simultaneous observation of γ-families and their accompanying air showers was performed at Yangbajing (4300 m above sea level) in Tibet with the emulsion chambers and burst detectors which were linked with the Tibet-II air-shower array. For three years operation, we observed 177 γ-families (∑Eγ > 20 TeV) accompanying air showers with the size Ne > 2 × 105. Using this data and the simulation code CORSIKA, we obtained the primary proton spectrum in the energy range of 1015-1016 eV. The slope of the observed spectrum is steeper than that extrapolated smoothly from the lower energy region below 1014 eV, irrespective of the interaction models assumed in the simulation. The uncertainty of the absolute flux of protons due to the interaction model dependence involved in the simulation codes is at most 30%, which is much weaker than results of other air-shower experiments. Our experiment shows low intensity of light components (proton and helium) independent of the interaction models suggesting that the main component responsible for making the knee structure of the all-particle spectrum is composed of nuclei heavier than helium. This is the first measurement of the differential energy spectra of primary protons by selecting them event by event at the knee energy region.

    AB - Simultaneous observation of γ-families and their accompanying air showers was performed at Yangbajing (4300 m above sea level) in Tibet with the emulsion chambers and burst detectors which were linked with the Tibet-II air-shower array. For three years operation, we observed 177 γ-families (∑Eγ > 20 TeV) accompanying air showers with the size Ne > 2 × 105. Using this data and the simulation code CORSIKA, we obtained the primary proton spectrum in the energy range of 1015-1016 eV. The slope of the observed spectrum is steeper than that extrapolated smoothly from the lower energy region below 1014 eV, irrespective of the interaction models assumed in the simulation. The uncertainty of the absolute flux of protons due to the interaction model dependence involved in the simulation codes is at most 30%, which is much weaker than results of other air-shower experiments. Our experiment shows low intensity of light components (proton and helium) independent of the interaction models suggesting that the main component responsible for making the knee structure of the all-particle spectrum is composed of nuclei heavier than helium. This is the first measurement of the differential energy spectra of primary protons by selecting them event by event at the knee energy region.

    KW - γ-Family

    KW - Cosmic rays

    KW - Knee region

    KW - Neural network

    KW - Proton

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    U2 - 10.1016/j.asr.2005.11.018

    DO - 10.1016/j.asr.2005.11.018

    M3 - Article

    VL - 37

    SP - 1938

    EP - 1943

    JO - Advances in Space Research

    JF - Advances in Space Research

    SN - 0273-1177

    IS - 10

    ER -