Provenance of the sandstone used in the construction of the khmer monuments in thailand

E. Uchida*, K. Ito, N. Shimizu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


We investigated the sandstone used in the construction of the Khmer monuments situated upon and around the Khorat Plateau in north-east Thailand in order to clarify the provenance. The sandstones of the 22 investigated Khmer monuments can be classified into three groups. The sandstone of Group 1 is lithic and is derived mainly from the Khok Kruat Formation. This group includes the sandstone used at Phimai, Phnom Wan, Muang Khaek etc. The sandstone of Group 2 is siliceous and can be subdivided into three further groups. The sandstone of Group 2 is considered to have been derived from the Phu Phan, Phra Wihan or Sao Khua Formations. The sandstone used at Muang Tam, Phnom Rung, Sdok Kok Thom, Preah Vihear (Khao Phra Wihan), Narai Jaeng Waeng etc. belongs to Group 2. The sandstone of Group 3 is feldspathic and is correlated with the grey to yellowish-brown sandstone that is commonly used in the Angkor monuments in Cambodia. This sandstone is used at Wat Phu and Hong Nang Sida in Laos. The above results reveal that the choice of sandstone used for the Khmer monuments, including the Angkor monuments, was dictated by the surrounding geology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)550-574
Number of pages25
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Aug 1


  • Angkor monuments
  • Khmer monuments
  • Provenance
  • Sandstone
  • Thailand

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • History
  • Archaeology


Dive into the research topics of 'Provenance of the sandstone used in the construction of the khmer monuments in thailand'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this