Proving Nontrivial Topology of Pure Bismuth by Quantum Confinement

S. Ito, B. Feng, M. Arita, A. Takayama, R. Y. Liu, T. Someya, W. C. Chen, T. Iimori, H. Namatame, M. Taniguchi, C. M. Cheng, S. J. Tang, F. Komori, K. Kobayashi, T. C. Chiang, I. Matsuda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Citations (Scopus)


The topology of pure Bi is controversial because of its very small (∼10 meV) band gap. Here we perform high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements systematically on 14-202 bilayer Bi films. Using high-quality films, we succeed in observing quantized bulk bands with energy separations down to ∼10 meV. Detailed analyses on the phase shift of the confined wave functions precisely determine the surface and bulk electronic structures, which unambiguously show nontrivial topology. The present results not only prove the fundamental property of Bi but also introduce a capability of the quantum-confinement approach.

Original languageEnglish
Article number236402
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Dec 2
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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