Random presentation enables subjects to adapt to two opposing forces on the hand

Rieko Osu, Satomi Hirai, Toshinori Yoshioka, Mitsuo Kawato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

134 Citations (Scopus)


Studies have shown that humans cannot simultaneously learn opposing force fields or opposing visuomotor rotations, even when provided with arbitrary contextual information, probably because of interference in their working memory 1-6. In contrast, we found that subjects can adapt to two opposing force fields when provided with contextual cues and can consolidate motor memories if random and frequent switching occurs. Because significant aftereffects were seen, this study suggests that multiple internal models can be acquired simultaneously during learning and predictively switched, depending only on contextual information.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-112
Number of pages2
JournalNature Neuroscience
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Feb
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

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