Crystallization is a suitable process for selective separation of a target ion since ions can be removed and recovered as purified and stable materials. Methods of recovery and recycling of phosphate and fluoride ions have been investigated to determine the optimum crystallization conditions like supersaturation, temperature, pH, impurities, and kind of solvents. As a result, by selecting the optimum crystal operation conditions for each wastewater composition, spherical-shape crystals with desired purity and size are obtained and generation of sludge is minimized.
- Seed crystals
- Water treatment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering